Cybernetics

Second Edition

Author: Norbert Wiener

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781614275022

Category: Computers

Page: 234

View: 6173

2013 Reprint of 1961 Second Edition. Full facsimile of the original edition, not reproduced with Optical Recognition Software. Acclaimed one of the "seminal books... comparable in ultimate importance to... Galileo or Malthus or Rousseau or Mill," "Cybernetics" was judged by twenty-seven historians, economists, educators, and philosophers to be one of those books published during the "past four decades," which may have a substantial impact on public thought and action in the years ahead." -- Saturday Review. Cybernetics was defined in the mid 20th century by Norbert Wiener as "the scientific study of control and communication in the animal and the machine." Fields of study which have influenced or been influenced by cybernetics include game theory, system theory (a mathematical counterpart to cybernetics), perceptual control theory, sociology, psychology (especially neuropsychology, behavioral psychology, cognitive psychology), philosophy, architecture, and organizational theory. Contents: Part one: original edition - Newtonian and Bergsonian time - Groups and statistical mechanics - Time series, information, and communication - Feedback and oscillation - Computing machines and nervous system - Gestalt and universals - Cybernetics and psychopathology - Information, language, and society - Part two: supplement chapters - On learning and self - reproducing machines - Brain waves and self - organizing systems.
Posted in Computers

The Human Use Of Human Beings

Cybernetics And Society

Author: Norbert Wiener

Publisher: Da Capo Press

ISBN: 0786752262

Category: Science

Page: 200

View: 2136

Only a few books stand as landmarks in social and scientific upheaval. Norbert Wiener's classic is one in that small company. Founder of the science of cybernetics—the study of the relationship between computers and the human nervous system—Wiener was widely misunderstood as one who advocated the automation of human life. As this book reveals, his vision was much more complex and interesting. He hoped that machines would release people from relentless and repetitive drudgery in order to achieve more creative pursuits. At the same time he realized the danger of dehumanizing and displacement. His book examines the implications of cybernetics for education, law, language, science, technology, as he anticipates the enormous impact—in effect, a third industrial revolution—that the computer has had on our lives.
Posted in Science

Dark Hero of the Information Age

In Search of Norbert Wiener, The Father of Cybernetics

Author: Flo Conway,Jim Siegelman

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0786735619

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 1418

Child prodigy and brilliant MIT mathematician, Norbert Wiener founded the revolutionary science of cybernetics and ignited the information-age explosion of computers, automation, and global telecommunications. His best-selling book, Cybernetics, catapulted him into the public spotlight, as did his chilling visions of the future and his ardent social activism.Based on a wealth of primary sources and exclusive access to Wiener's closest family members, friends, and colleagues, Dark Hero of the Information Age reveals this eccentric genius as an extraordinarily complex figure. No one interested in the intersection of technology and culture will want to miss this epic story of one of the twentieth century's most brilliant and colorful figures.
Posted in Science

God and Golem, Inc

A Comment on Certain Points where Cybernetics Impinges on Religion

Author: Norbert Wiener

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262730112

Category: Philosophy

Page: 99

View: 2998

The new and rapidly growing field of communication sciences owes as much to Norbert Wiener as to any one man. He coined the word for it-- "cybernetics." In "God &; Golem, Inc.," the author concerned himself with major points in cybernetics which are relevant to religious issues. The first point he considers is that of the machine which learns. While learning is a property almost exclusively ascribed to the self-conscious living system, a computer now exists which not only can be programmed to play a game of checkers, but one which can "learn" from its past experience and improve on its own game. For a time, the machine was able to beat its inventor at checkers. "It did win, " writes the author, "and it did learn to win; "and the method of its learning was no different in principle from that of the human being who learns to play checkers." A second point concerns machines which have the capacity to reproduce themselves. It is our commonly held belief that God made man in his own image. The propagation of the race may also be interpreted as a function in which one living being makes another in its own image. But the author demonstrates that man has made machines which are "very well able to make other machines in their own image, " and these machine images are not merely "pictorial" representations but "operative" images. Can we then say: God is to Golem as man is to Machines? in Jewish legend, "golem" is an embryo Adam, shapeless and not fully created, hence a monster, an automation. The third point considered is that of the relation between man and machine. The concern here is ethical. "render unto man the things which are man's andunto the computer the things which are the computer's, " warns the author. In this section of the book, Dr. Wiener considers systems involving elements of man "and" machine. The book is written for the intellectually alert public and does not involve any highly technical knowledge. It is based on lectures given at Yale, at the Socié té Philosophique de Royaumont, and elsewhere.
Posted in Philosophy

Rise of the Machines: A Cybernetic History

Author: Thomas Rid

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 0393286010

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 432

View: 4730

"Dazzling.” —Financial Times As lives offline and online merge even more, it is easy to forget how we got here. Rise of the Machines reclaims the spectacular story of cybernetics, one of the twentieth century’s pivotal ideas. Springing from the mind of mathematician Norbert Wiener amid the devastation of World War II, the cybernetic vision underpinned a host of seductive myths about the future of machines. Cybernetics triggered blissful cults and military gizmos, the Whole Earth Catalog and the air force’s foray into virtual space, as well as crypto-anarchists fighting for internet freedom. In Rise of the Machines, Thomas Rid draws on unpublished sources—including interviews with hippies, anarchists, sleuths, and spies—to offer an unparalleled perspective into our anxious embrace of technology.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Cybernetics Or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine

Author: Norbert Wiener

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262730099

Category: Computers

Page: 212

View: 3902

"It appers impossible for anyone seriously interested in our civilization to ignore this book. It is a ‘ must’ book for those in every branch of science . . . in addition, economists, politicians, statesmen, and businessmen cannot afford to overlook cybernetics and its tremendous, even terrifying implications. "It is a beautifully written book, lucid, direct, and despite its complexity, as readable by the layman as the trained scientist." -- John B. Thurston, "The Saturday Review of Literature" Acclaimed one of the "seminal books . . . comparable in ultimate importance to . . . Galileo or Malthus or Rousseau or Mill," "Cybernetics" was judged by twenty-seven historians, economists, educators, and philosophers to be one of those books published during the "past four decades, " which may have a substantial impact on public thought and action in the years ahead." -- "Saturday Review"
Posted in Computers

The Cybernetics Moment

Or Why We Call Our Age the Information Age

Author: Ronald R. Kline

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 1421416719

Category: History

Page: 352

View: 3601

Cybernetics—the science of communication and control as it applies to machines and to humans—originates from efforts during World War II to build automatic anti-aircraft systems. Following the war, this science extended beyond military needs to examine all systems that rely on information and feedback, from the level of the cell to that of society. In The Cybernetics Moment, Ronald R. Kline, a senior historian of technology, examines the intellectual and cultural history of cybernetics and information theory, whose language of "information," "feedback," and "control" transformed the idiom of the sciences, hastened the development of information technologies, and laid the conceptual foundation for what we now call the Information Age. Kline argues that, for about twenty years after 1950, the growth of cybernetics and information theory and ever-more-powerful computers produced a utopian information narrative—an enthusiasm for information science that influenced natural scientists, social scientists, engineers, humanists, policymakers, public intellectuals, and journalists, all of whom struggled to come to grips with new relationships between humans and intelligent machines. Kline traces the relationship between the invention of computers and communication systems and the rise, decline, and transformation of cybernetics by analyzing the lives and work of such notables as Norbert Wiener, Claude Shannon, Warren McCulloch, Margaret Mead, Gregory Bateson, and Herbert Simon. Ultimately, he reveals the crucial role played by the cybernetics moment—when cybernetics and information theory were seen as universal sciences—in setting the stage for our current preoccupation with information technologies.
Posted in History

The Cybernetic Brain

Sketches of Another Future

Author: Andrew Pickering

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226667928

Category: Science

Page: 560

View: 8150

Cybernetics is often thought of as a grim military or industrial science of control. But as Andrew Pickering reveals in this beguiling book, a much more lively and experimental strain of cybernetics can be traced from the 1940s to the present. The Cybernetic Brain explores a largely forgotten group of British thinkers, including Grey Walter, Ross Ashby, Gregory Bateson, R. D. Laing, Stafford Beer, and Gordon Pask, and their singular work in a dazzling array of fields. Psychiatry, engineering, management, politics, music, architecture, education, tantric yoga, the Beats, and the sixties counterculture all come into play as Pickering follows the history of cybernetics’ impact on the world, from contemporary robotics and complexity theory to the Chilean economy under Salvador Allende. What underpins this fascinating history, Pickering contends, is a shared but unconventional vision of the world as ultimately unknowable, a place where genuine novelty is always emerging. And thus, Pickering avers, the history of cybernetics provides us with an imaginative model of open-ended experimentation in stark opposition to the modern urge to achieve domination over nature and each other.
Posted in Science

Cybernetic Revolutionaries

Technology and Politics in Allende's Chile

Author: Eden Medina

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262525968

Category: Computers

Page: 344

View: 3012

A historical study of Chile's twin experiments with cybernetics and socialism, and what they tell us about the relationship of technology and politics.
Posted in Computers

An Introduction to Information Theory

Symbols, Signals and Noise

Author: John R. Pierce

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486134970

Category: Computers

Page: 336

View: 315

Covers encoding and binary digits, entropy, language and meaning, efficient encoding and the noisy channel, and explores ways in which information theory relates to physics, cybernetics, psychology, and art. 1980 edition.
Posted in Computers

Cybernetics

From Past to Future

Author: D.A. Novikov

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319273973

Category: Computers

Page: 107

View: 4261

This book is a concise navigator across the history of cybernetics, its state-of-the-art and prospects. The evolution of cybernetics (from N. Wiener to the present day) and the reasons of its ups and downs are presented. The correlation of cybernetics with the philosophy and methodology of control, as well as with system theory and systems analysis is clearly demonstrated. The book presents a detailed analysis focusing on the modern trends of research in cybernetics. A new development stage of cybernetics (the so-called cybernetics 2.0) is discussed as a science on general regularities of systems organization and control. The author substantiates the topicality of elaborating a new branch of cybernetics, i.e. organization theory which studies an organization as a property, process and system. The book is intended for theoreticians and practitioners, as well as for students, postgraduates and doctoral candidates. In the first place, the target audience includes tutors and lecturers preparing courses on cybernetics, control theory and systems science.
Posted in Computers

Invention

The Care and Feeding of Ideas

Author: Norbert Wiener

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262731119

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 159

View: 8896

An insider's view of the history of discovery and invention.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

An Approach to Cybernetics

Author: Gordon Pask

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Cybernetics

Page: 128

View: 3832

Posted in Cybernetics

Understanding Understanding

Essays on Cybernetics and Cognition

Author: Heinz von Foerster

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387217223

Category: Computers

Page: 362

View: 4308

In these ground-breaking essays, Heinz von Foerster discusses some of the fundamental principles that govern how we know the world and how we process the information from which we derive that knowledge. The author was one of the founders of the science of cybernetics.
Posted in Computers

Steps to an Ecology of Mind

Collected Essays in Anthropology, Psychiatry, Evolution, and Epistemology

Author: Gregory Bateson

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226039053

Category: Medical

Page: 533

View: 4861

Gregory Bateson was a philosopher, anthropologist, photographer, naturalist, and poet, as well as the husband and collaborator of Margaret Mead. This classic anthology of his major work includes a new Foreword by his daughter, Mary Katherine Bateson. 5 line drawings.
Posted in Medical

Extrapolation, Interpolation, and Smoothing of Stationary Time Series, with Engineering Applications

Author: Norbert Wiener

Publisher: Martino Fine Books

ISBN: 9781614275176

Category: Mathematics

Page: 174

View: 6011

2013 Reprint of 1949 Edition. Full facsimile of the original edition, not reproduced with Optical Recognition Software. This is the second book by Norbert Wiener on time series and communication engineering. While the first one, "Cybernetics," treated the subject from a general standpoint and was more philosophical than mathematical, the present volume is more technical than theoretical, and forms a kind of companion piece to the first. It is intended as a tool for engineers working in the field of electrical communication and related subjects. The book consists of an introduction, five chapters, and three appendices. After explaining the general outline of the problem in the introduction, the author gives in Chapter I a review of generalized harmonic analysis which is necessary for the understanding of the following chapters. Chapters II and III are devoted to the problems of prediction and filtering respectively. In Chapter IV there is given a brief account of the theory of multiple prediction, that is, the theory of prediction when we deal with more than one time series at the same time. Finally, in Chapter V there is given a short discussion on the application of similar methods to a problem of approximate differentiation.
Posted in Mathematics

Red Star

The First Bolshevik Utopia

Author: Alexander Bogdanov

Publisher: Indiana University Press

ISBN: 025301350X

Category: History

Page: 272

View: 5590

"[A] surprisingly moving story." —The New Yorker "Bogdanov's novels reveal a great deal about their fascinating author, about his time and, ironically, ours, and about the genre of utopia as well as his contribution to it." —Slavic Review "Bogdanov's imaginative predictions for his utopia are both technological and social... Even more farsighted are [his] anxious forebodings about the limits and costs of the utopian future." —Science Fiction Studies "The contemporary reader will marvel at [Bogdanov's] foresight: nuclear fusion and propulsion, atomic weaponry and fallout, computers, blood transfusions, and (almost) unisexuality." —Choice A communist society on Mars, the Russian revolution, and class struggle on two planets is the subject of this arresting science fiction novel by Alexander Bogdanov (1873–1928), one of the early organizers and prophets of the Russian Bolshevik party. The red star is Mars, but it is also the dream set to paper of the society that could emerge on earth after the dual victory of the socialist and scientific-technical revolutions. While portraying a harmonious and rational socialist society, Bogdanov sketches out the problems that will face industrialized nations, whether socialist or capitalist.
Posted in History

The Allure of Machinic Life

Cybernetics, Artificial Life, and the New AI

Author: John Johnston

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262101262

Category: Computers

Page: 461

View: 6685

An account of the creation of new forms of life and intelligence in cybernetics, artificial life, and artificial intelligence that analyzes both the similarities and the differences among these sciences in actualizing life.The Allure of Machinic Life
Posted in Computers