Criminology and Social Theory

Author: David Garland,Richard Sparks

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780198299424

Category: Social Science

Page: 224

View: 6348

In this unique collection, a distinguished group of social theorists reflect upon the ways in which crime and its control feature in the political and cultural landscapes of contemporary societies. The book brings together for the first time some of today's most powerful social analysts in a discussion of the meaning of crime and punishment in late-modern society. The result is a stimulating and provocative volume that will be of equal interest to specialist criminologists and those working in the fields of social and cultural studies.
Posted in Social Science

Social Order and the Fear of Crime in Contemporary Times

Author: Stephen D. Farrall,Jonathan Jackson,Emily Gray

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199540810

Category: Law

Page: 319

View: 5870

The fear of crime has been recognized as an important social problem, affecting a significant number of people. In this book, the authors review the findings from over 35 years of research into attitudes to crime and propose a new model, separating those who only 'expressively' fear crime from those who have actual experience of worrying about it.
Posted in Law

Police Culture in a Changing World

Author: Bethan Loftus

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191629723

Category: Law

Page: 258

View: 8139

This fascinating new title offers an ethnographical investigation of contemporary police culture based on extensive field work across a range of ranks and units in the UK's police force. By drawing on over 600 hours of direct observation of operational policing in urban and rural areas and interviews with over 60 officers, the author assesses what impact three decades of social, economic and political change have had on police culture. She offers new understandings of the policing of ethnicity, gender and sexuality, and the ways in which reform initiatives are accommodated and resisted within the police. The author also explores the attempts of one force to effect cultural change both to improve the working conditions of staff and to deliver a more effective and equitable service to all groups in society. Beginning with a review of the literature on police culture from 30 years ago, the author goes on to outline the new social, economic and political field of contemporary British policing. Taking this as a starting point, the remaining chapters present the main findings of the empirical research in what is a a truly comprehensive analysis of present day policing culture.
Posted in Law

What is Criminology?

Author: Mary Bosworth,Carolyn Hoyle

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191635413

Category: Law

Page: 592

View: 2113

Criminology is a booming discipline, yet one which can appear divided and fractious. In this rich and diverse collection of essays, some of the world's leading criminologists respond to a series of questions designed to investigate the state, impact, and future challenges of the discipline: What is criminology for? What is the impact of criminology? How should criminology be done? What are the key issues and debates in criminology today? What challenges does the discipline of criminology face? How has criminology as a discipline changed over the last few decades? The resulting essays identify a series of intellectual, methodological, and ideological borders. Borders, in criminology as elsewhere, are policed, yet they are also frequently transgressed; criminologists can and do move across them to plunder, admire, or learn from other regions. While some boundaries may be more difficult or dangerous to cross than others it is rare to find an entirely secluded locale or community. In traversing ideological, political, geographical, and disciplinary borders, criminologists bring training, tools, and concepts, as well as key texts to share with foreigners. From such exchanges, over time, borders may break down, shift, or spring up, enriching those who take the journey and those who are visited. It is, in other words, in criminology's capacity for and commitment to reflexivity, on which the strength of the field depends.
Posted in Law

Accountability in Restorative Justice

Author: Declan Roche

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780199259359

Category: Law

Page: 316

View: 3078

Many countries have recently established restorative justice programmes, in which those affected by a crime attend meetings in the hope of achieving the ideals of reparation, reconciliation and reintegration. To answer concerns that these meetings may degenerate into 'kangaroo courts' in which participants bully and humiliate each other, this book draws upon extensive fieldwork to explore the nature, function and effectiveness of the accountability within this kind of informal justice.
Posted in Law

Life After Life Imprisonment

Author: Catherine Appleton

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199582718

Category: Law

Page: 252

View: 1795

One of the most contentious and sensitive topics in criminal justice, Life after Life Imprisonment looks at the release and resettlement of life-sentenced offenders in England and Wales - where there are very few prisoners in the system for whom 'life' means life. By providing an in-depth analysis of the post-prison experiences of 138 discretionary life-sentenced offenders, all of whom were released during the mid-1990s, this book looks at the reality facing Lifers as they are released at some time during their sentences, usually on very long licences, to be closely monitored and supervised by probation officers. Using accessible and comprehensive data, it examines key legal developments within the criminal justice system for discretionary life-sentenced offenders, explores the frontline experiences of the probation officers charged with supervising life-sentenced offenders, and analyses the 'stories' or life narratives of a group of individuals who have committed some of the most serious crimes. It also examines the process of recall for life-sentenced prisoners and explores key factors associated with failure in the community. Of interest to legal scholars and criminologists, as well as practitioners in the field, Catherine Appleton's book offers a major insight into how societies respond to serious crime and identifies important elements of successful reintegration for released life-sentenced offenders.
Posted in Law

Repair Or Revenge

Victims and Restorative Justice

Author: Heather Strang

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780199274291

Category: Law

Page: 298

View: 8909

Over the past three decades, the victim movement worldwide has agitated for an enhanced role for victims in the criminal justice system. In this book Heather Strang argues that, despite some progress towards that goal, structural as well as political factors may mean that victims have won as much as they are likely to gain from conventional justice processing. She asks whether restorative justice can offer them more justice than they receive from the formal court-based system. Drawing on a five-year study of the impact of a restorative justice programme on victims of both property and violent crime, Strang presents empirical evidence to show that the restorative alternative of conferencing more often than court-based solutions has the capacity to satisfy victims' expectations of achieving a meaningful role in the way their cases are dealt with as well as delivering restoration, especially emotional restoration, from the harm they have suffered. Examines the victim's experience of restorative justice in comparison with the experience of victims whose cases were treated in the courts in the usual way Shifts the focus of discussion from the effectiveness of restorative justice in reducing reoffending to whether it offers the victims of crime advantages over traditional court-centred justice This book addresses the role of victims in our criminal justice system and the shortcomings they perceive in the way they are treated. It examines whether restorative justice can offer them more justice than they receive from the formal court-based system. Research into the shortcomings of the court-based system has identified a number of issues that victims want to address. In brief, they want a less formal process where their views count, more information about both the processing and the outcome of their case, a greater opportunity for participation in the way their case is dealt with, fairer and more respectful treatment, and emotional as well as material restoration as an outcome. Over the past three decades, the victim movement worldwide has agitated for an enhanced role for victims in criminal justice. Despite some successes, it appears that structural as well as political factors may mean that victims have won as much as they are likely to gain from formal justice. A series of randomized controlled trials in Canberra, known as the Reintegrative Shaming Experiments (RISE), has provided an opportunity to compare rigorously the impact on victims of court-based justice with a restorative justice program known as conferencing. In these experiments, middle-range property and violent offences committed by young offenders were assigned either to court (as they would normally have been treated) or to a conference. Empirical evidence from RISE examined in this book suggests that the restorative alternative of conferencing more often than court has the capacity to give victims what they say they want in achieving meaningful victim participation and restoration, especially emotional restoration.Contents:Chapter 1 The Victim in Criminal Justice Chapter 2 Victims of Crime and the Victim Movement Chapter 3 The Theory and Practice of Restorative Justice Chapter 4 The Reintegrative Shaming Experiments: Research Design and Methodology Chapter 5 The Lived Experience of Victims: How Restorative Justice Worked in Canberra Chapter 6 Victim Satisfaction with the Restorative Alternative Chapter 7 Victims and Offenders: A Relational Analysis Chapter 8 Conclusion
Posted in Law

When Children Kill Children

Penal Populism and Political Culture

Author: David A. Green

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191629766

Category: Law

Page: 352

View: 6628

This title examines the role of political culture and penal populism in the response to the emotive subject of child-on-child homicide. Green explores the reasons underlying the vastly differing responses of the English and Norwegian criminal justice systems to the cases of James Bulger and Silje Redergard respectively. Whereas James Bulger's killers were subject to extreme press and public hostility, and held in secure detention for nine months before being tried in an adversarial court, and served eight years in custody, a Redergard's killers were shielded from public antagonism and carefully reintegrated into the local community. This book argues that English adversarial political culture creates far more incentives to politicize high-profile crimes than Norwegian consensus political culture. Drawing on a wealth of empirical research, Green suggests that the tendency for politicians to justify punitive responses to crime by invoking harsh political attitudes is based upon a flawed understanding of public opinion. In a compelling study, Green proposes a more deliberative response to crime is possible by making English culture less adversarial and by making informed public judgment more assessable.
Posted in Law

The Local Governance of Crime

Appeals to Community and Partnerships

Author: Adam Crawford

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198298458

Category: Law

Page: 368

View: 2940

The book considers recent trends in the local governance of crime. It examines the growing appeal to `community' and `partnerships' in criminal justice policy and the involvement of actual communities and partnerships in criminal justice practices. The book makes sense of ongoing transformations in the relations between the state, market, and civil society in the governance of crime and personal safety. It draws upon the findings of two empirical research projects, conducted by the author, in the fields of community-based crime prevention and local victim-offender and community mediation. The overall aim of the book is to answer, both theoretically and empirically, a number of interrelated questions, namely: How do we make sense of appeals to `community' and `partnerships' in criminal justice policy? What are the implications of actual involvement of `communities' and the establishment of inter-organizational `partnerships' in crime control initiatives? Is crime control an appropriate vehicle around which to (re)organize communities? Finally, if so, what sort of communities are we generating through such a focus?
Posted in Law

Private Security and Public Policing

Author: Trevor Jones,Tim Newburn

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198265697

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 6612

In this first major empirical study of its kind, the authors examine the growth of 'private' policing and its relationship with, and implications for, the public police service. Beginning with a critique of the sociology of policing, the authors then provide a detailed analysis of the concepts of public and private, and examine the boundaries between different forms of policing. Using data from the first ever survey of the private security sector in Britain, the authors provide estimatesof the numbers of employees and firms in the industry; the range of services and products offered; and the attitudes of those at senior levels in private security organizations. Competiting theoretical explanations for the growth of private policing are then considered. The book then examines policing at the local level. Using a case study of the London Borough of Wandsworth, the authors examine the range of individuals and organizations involved in policing on the ground. They describe and analyse the activities of the full range of 'policing' bodies, including the public police force, investigatory and regulatory agencies attached to national and local government, and private security organizations. Using this analysis, the authors offer a thorough reconceptualization of what is meant by 'policing' in the late modern era, and consider the implications of this for the public police service and for the future of policing generally.
Posted in Political Science

Bouncers

Violence and Governance in the Night-time Economy

Author: Dick Hobbs

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780199252244

Category: Law

Page: 323

View: 1049

In recent years, the expansion of night-time leisure has emerged as a key indicator of post-industrial urban prosperity, attracting investment, creating employment, and re-generating the built environment. These leisure economies are youth-dominated, focusing upon the sale and consumption of alcohol. Unprecedented numbers of young people now flock to town centres that are crammed with bars, pubs, and clubs, and the resulting violent disorder has over run police resources that remain geared to the drinking patterns and alcohol cultures of previous generations. Post-industrial re-structuring has spawned an increasingly complex mass of night-time leisure options through which numerous licit and illicit commercial opportunities flow. Yet, regardless of the fashionable and romantic notions of many contemporary urban theorists, it is alcohol, mass intoxication, and profit rather than 'cultural regeneration,' which lies at the heart of this rapidly expanding dimension of post-industrial urbanism. Private security in the bulky form of bouncers fills the void left by the public police. These men (only 7% are women), whose activities are barely regulated by the State, are dominated by a powerful subculture rooted in routine violence and intimidation. Using ethnography, participant observation, and extensive interviews with all the main players, this controversial book charts the emergence of the bouncer as one of the most graphic symbols in the iconography of post-industrial Britain.
Posted in Law

Investigating Murder

Detective Work and the Police Response to Criminal Homicide

Author: Martin Innes

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199259427

Category: Social Science

Page: 318

View: 6922

'Investigating Murder' provides a unique insight into how police detectives investigate and solve murders. It covers the practices and processes involved in the investigation of serious violent crimes, as well as some of the problems that are often encountered in the conduct of this work.
Posted in Social Science

Sentencing Policy and Social Justice

Author: Ralph Henham

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191029041

Category: Law

Page: 320

View: 4719

Sentencing Policy and Social Justice argues that the promotion of social justice should become a key objective of sentencing policy, advancing the argument that the legitimacy of sentencing ultimately depends upon the strength of the relationship between social morality and penal ideology. It sheds light on how shared moral values can influence sentencing policy at a time when relationships of community appear increasingly fragmented, arguing that sentencing will be better placed to make a positive contribution to social justice if it becomes more sensitive to the commonly-accepted moral boundaries that underpin adherence to the 'rule of law'. The need to reflect public opinion in sentencing has received significant attention more recently, with renewed interest in jury sentencing, 'stakeholder sentencing', and the involvement of community views when regulating policy. The author, however, advocates a different approach, combining a new theoretical focus with practical suggestions for reform, and arguing that the contribution sentencing can make to social justice necessitates a fundamental change in the way shared values about the advantages of punishment are reflected in penal ideology and sentencing policy. Using examples from international, comparative and domestic contexts to advance the moral and ethical case for challenging the existing theories of sentencing, the book develops the author's previous theoretical ideas and outlines how these changes could be given practical shape within the context of sentencing in England and Wales. It assesses the consequences for penal governance due to increased state regulation of discretionary sentencing power and examines the prospects for achieving the kind of moral transformation regarded as necessary to reverse such a move. To illustrate these issues each chapter focuses on a particularly problematic area for contemporary sentencing policy; namely, the sentencing of women; the sentencing of irregular migrants; sentencing for offences of serious public disorder; and sentencing for financial crime.
Posted in Law

Punishment and Modern Society

A Study in Social Theory

Author: David Garland

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226922502

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 6097

In this path-breaking book, David Garland argues that punishment is a complex social institution that affects both social relations and cultural meanings. Drawing on theorists from Durkheim to Foucault, he insightfully critiques the entire spectrum of social thought concerning punishment, and reworks it into a new interpretive synthesis. "Punishment and Modern Society is an outstanding delineation of the sociology of punishment. At last the process that is surely the heart and soul of criminology, and perhaps of sociology as well—punishment—has been rescued from the fringes of these 'disciplines'. . . . This book is a first-class piece of scholarship."—Graeme Newman, Contemporary Sociology "Garland's treatment of the theorists he draws upon is erudite, faithful and constructive. . . . Punishment and Modern Society is a magnificent example of working social theory."—John R. Sutton, American Journal of Sociology "Punishment and Modern Society lifts contemporary penal issues from the mundane and narrow contours within which they are so often discussed and relocates them at the forefront of public policy. . . . This book will become a landmark study."—Andrew Rutherford, Legal Studies "This is a superbly intelligent study. Its comprehensive coverage makes it a genuine review of the field. Its scholarship and incisiveness of judgment will make it a constant reference work for the initiated, and its concluding theoretical synthesis will make it a challenge and inspiration for those undertaking research and writing on the subject. As a state-of-the-art account it is unlikely to be bettered for many a year."—Rod Morgan, British Journal of Criminology Winner of both the Outstanding Scholarship Award of the Crime and Delinquency Division of the Society for the Study of Social Problems and the Distinguished Scholar Award from the American Sociological Association's Crime, Law, and Deviance Section
Posted in Social Science

Breaking Rules: The Social and Situational Dynamics of Young People's Urban Crime

Author: Per-Olof H. Wikström

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199592845

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 479

View: 6901

Breaking new ground in the study of crime in urban environments, Breaking Rules examines the findings, theoretical basis, and new methodology of The Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study (PADS+). This major longitudinal study investigates the role of the social environment on crime causation, involving a cohort of 700 young people from the age of 12. A particular aim of PADS+ is to employ a new theory, known as Situational ActionTheory, as well as the innovative methodology of ecometrics combined with space-time budgets to improve the study of young people's offending and its changes.
Posted in Language Arts & Disciplines

The Criminological Foundations of Penal Policy

Essays in Honour of Roger Hood

Author: Roger G. Hood,Lucia Zedner,Andrew Ashworth

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780199265091

Category: Law

Page: 553

View: 9660

This book brings together leading international criminologist to examine the link between the fruits of criminological research and the development of criminal justice policy. This volume includes comparative discussions of the United States, Germany, Australia, England and Wales. It is divided into four parts: Part 1 discusses the theoretical issues surrounding the relationship between public policy and the discipline of criminology; Part 2 consists of three essays exploring historical aspects of that relationship. Part 3 then examines three distinct areas of penal policy: sentencing, policing and parole; Part 4 is devoted to international comparisons and considers the factors that distinguish research projects that influence criminal justice policy from those that appear not have any influence.
Posted in Law

Policing and the Condition of England

Memory, Politics and Culture

Author: Ian Loader,Aogán Mulcahy

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780198299066

Category: Law

Page: 381

View: 9594

Polls repeatedly show that trust in, and respect for, the police have declined from the high levels achieved during the 1950s. This work, on the relationship between English policing and culture, revises the received sociological and popular wisdom on the fate that has befallen the English police.
Posted in Law

The Prisoner Society

Power, Adaptation and Social Life in an English Prison

Author: Ben Crewe

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 019162974X

Category: Law

Page: 544

View: 9267

While the use of imprisonment continues to rise in developed nations, we have little sociological knowledge of the prison's inner world. Based on extensive fieldwork in a medium-security prison in the UK, HMP Wellingborough, The Prisoner Society: Power, Adaptation and Social Life in an English Prison provides an in-depth analysis of the prison's social anatomy. It explains how power is exercised by the institution, individualizing the prisoner community and demanding particular forms of compliance and engagement. Drawing on prisoners' life stories, it shows how different prisoners experience and respond to the new range of penal practices and frustrations. It then explains how the prisoner society - its norms, hierarchy and social relationships - is shaped both by these conditions of confinement and by the different backgrounds, values and identities that prisoners bring into the prison environment.
Posted in Law

The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

Author: Mike Maguire,Rodney Morgan,Robert Reiner

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199205442

Category: Law

Page: 1185

View: 338

teachers and students of criminology and is a sourcebook for professionals.
Posted in Law

The Policing Web

Author: Jean-Paul Brodeur

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199813315

Category: Law

Page: 416

View: 4063

Nearly all research devoted to policing focuses on public uniformed police and their legal use of force. An overwhelming amount of this work draws on evidence from Anglo-American police forces. These twin emphases have led to a limited view. Agencies such as criminal investigation units, intelligence services, private security companies, and military policing organizations have almost entirely escaped scholarly attention. In The Policing Web, Jean-Paul Brodeur looks at policing as a whole. He illuminates its full diversity, showing how it extends far beyond the confines of public police working in uniform and visible to all. Brodeur considers military policing, both when it complements the values of democracy and when it does not. He also discusses criminal individuals acting as police informants, and criminal organizations enforcing their own rules in urban zones deserted by the police. Brodeur argues that the diverse strands of the policing web are united by a common definition that emphasizes the license granted to policing agencies-legally or with impunity- to use means otherwise forbidden to the rest of the population. Employing an international and comparative approach, Brodeur establishes a comprehensive model that links all the components of policing. The policing web, however, is not a neat and well-integrated structure. There is not just one policing web. There are several, depending on the country, police history and culture, and the various public images of policing. These often overlooked factors are essential components of the context of policing. Wide-ranging and authoritative, The Policing Web expands the very idea of what policing is and how it works, and presents a novel yet fundamental understanding of law enforcement.
Posted in Law