Conscience and Convenience was quickly recognized for its masterly depiction and interpretation of a major period of reform history. This history begins in a social context in which treatment and rehabilitation were emerging as predominant after America's prisons and asylums had been broadly acknowledged to be little more than embarrassing failures. The resulting progressive agenda was evident: to develop new, more humane and effective strategies for the criminal, delinquent, and mentally ill. The results, as Rothman documents, did not turn out as reformers had planned.For adult criminal offenders, such individual treatment could be accomplished only through the provision of broad discretionary authority, whereby choices could be made between probation, parole, indeterminate sentencing, and, as a measure of last resort, incarceration in totally redesigned prisons. For delinquents, the juvenile court served as a surrogate parent and accelerated and intensified individual treatment by providing for a series of community-based individual and family services, with the newly designed, school-like reformatories being used for only the most intractable cases. For the mentally ill, psychiatrists chose between outpatient treatments, short-term intensive care, or as last resort, long-term care in mental hospitals with new cottage and family-like arrangements. Rothman shows the consequences of these reforms as unmitigated disasters. Despite benevolent intentions, the actual outcome of reform efforts was to take the earlier failures of prisons and asylums to new, more ominous heights.In this updated edition, Rothman chronicles and examines incarceration of the criminal, the deviant, and the dependent in U.S. society, with a focus on how and why these methods have persisted and expanded for over a century and a half despite longstanding evidence of their failures and abuses.
The Asylum and Its Alternatives in Progressive America
Author: David J. Rothman
Over the last 40 years, the US penal system has grown at an unprecedented rate—five times larger than in the past and grossly out of scale with the rest of the world. In The Punishment Imperative, eminent criminologists Todd R. Clear and Natasha A. Frost argue that America’s move to mass incarceration from the 1960s to the early 2000s was more than just a response to crime or a collection of policies adopted in isolation; it was a grand social experiment. Tracing a wide array of trends related to the criminal justice system, this book charts the rise of penal severity in America and speculates that a variety of forces—fiscal, political, and evidentiary—have finally come together to bring this great social experiment to an end. The authors stress that while the doubling of the crime rate in the late 1960s represented one of the most pressing social problems at the time, it was instead the way crime posed a political problem—and thereby offered a political opportunity—that became the basis for the great rise in punishment. Clear and Frost contend that the public’s growing realization that the severe policies themselves, not growing crime rates, were the main cause of increased incarceration eventually led to a surge of interest in taking a more rehabilitative, pragmatic, and cooperative approach to dealing with criminal offenders that still continues to this day. Part historical study, part forward-looking policy analysis, The Punishment Imperative is a compelling study of a generation of crime and punishment in America.
The Rise and Failure of Mass Incarceration in America
Author: Todd R. Clear,Natasha A. Frost
Publisher: NYU Press
Category: Social Science
This book brings together leading international criminologist to examine the link between the fruits of criminological research and the development of criminal justice policy. This volume includes comparative discussions of the United States, Germany, Australia, England and Wales. It is divided into four parts: Part 1 discusses the theoretical issues surrounding the relationship between public policy and the discipline of criminology; Part 2 consists of three essays exploring historical aspects of that relationship. Part 3 then examines three distinct areas of penal policy: sentencing, policing and parole; Part 4 is devoted to international comparisons and considers the factors that distinguish research projects that influence criminal justice policy from those that appear not have any influence.
Essays in Honour of Roger Hood
Author: Roger G. Hood,Lucia Zedner,Andrew Ashworth
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
This introduction to criminology, designed for course in criminology offered at two and four schools, is one of the most comprehensive, and well-researched books on the market. For use in both Sociology and Criminal Justice departments, this text offers detailed coverage of theories and types of crime.
Publisher: McGraw-Hill College
Category: Social Science
This text helps students understand controversial issues of racial and economic inequities found in the criminal justice system, offering an alternative interpretation of criminal justice that is rarely presented in traditional textbooks. After overviews of the criminal justice system and the proble
A Critical View
Author: Randall G. Shelden,William Bud Brown
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon
Author: Clemens Bartollas
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Category: Social Science
But Creating Born Criminals is much more than a look at the past. It is an exploration of the role of biological explanation as a form of discourse and of its impact upon society. While The Bell Curve and other recent books have stopped short of making eugenic recommendations, their contentions point toward eugenic conclusions, and people familiar with the history of eugenics can hear in them its echoes. Rafter demonstrates that we need to know how eugenic reasoning worked in the past and that we must recognize the dangers posed by the dominance of a theory that interprets social problems in biological terms and difference as biological inferiority.
Author: Nicole Hahn Rafter
Publisher: Univ of Illinois Pr
symposium held at New York University School of Law, February 23, 2007
Author: New York University. School of Law
Category: Election law
Author: Joel Samaha
Publisher: West Publishing Company
Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.
Author: Yuval Noah Harari
die Geburt des Gefängnisses
Author: Michel Foucault
Category: Bürgerliche Gesellschaft - Disziplinierung - Geschichte
Drogen, Waffen, Menschenhandel, Geldwäsche, Markenpiraterie
Author: Moisés Naím
Author: Edward W. Said
Category: Europa - Orientbild - Kultur - Geschichte 1800-2000