Conflict, Conquest, and Conversion surveys two thousand years of the Christian missionary enterprise in the Middle East within the context of the region's political evolution. Its broad, rich narrative follows Christian missions as they interacted with imperial powers and as the momentum of religious change shifted from Christianity to Islam and back, adding new dimensions to the history of the region and the nature of the relationship between the Middle East and the West. Historians and political scientists increasingly recognize the importance of integrating religion into political analysis, and this volume, using long-neglected sources, uniquely advances this effort. It surveys Christian missions from the earliest days of Christianity to the present, paying particular attention to the role of Christian missions, both Protestant and Catholic, in shaping the political and economic imperialism of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Eleanor H. Tejirian and Reeva Spector Simon delineate the ongoing tensions between conversion and the focus on witness and "good works" within the missionary movement, which contributed to the development and spread of nongovernmental organizations. Through its conscientious, systematic study, this volume offers an unparalleled encounter with the social, political, and economic consequences of such trends.
Two Thousand Years of Christian Missions in the Middle East
Author: Eleanor H. Tejirian,Reeva Spector Simon
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Die Verflochtenheit der Weltreligionen in die globalen Dynamiken der Gegenwart ist im 21. Jahrhundert selbstverständlich geworden. Das gilt auch für das Christentum. Angesichts der nach wie vor vorherrschenden regionalen oder nationalen Geschichtsschreibung ist allerdings nur wenig über den historischen Entwicklungsprozess des Christentums hin zu einer weltweit agierenden und plural differenzierten Religion bekannt. Der vorliegende Band präsentiert erstmals im deutschen Sprachraum eine umfassende, interkonfessionelle und interdisziplinäre Geschichte des Globalen Christentums im 19. Jahrhundert. Ausgewiesene Theologen, Kirchenhistoriker und Historiker zeichnen die zahlreichen Umbrüche nach, die das "lange 19. Jahrhundert" mit sich brachte und die das Christentum in die Moderne beförderten.
Teil 2: 19. Jahrhundert
Author: Jens Holger Schjørring,Norman A. Hjelm
Publisher: Kohlhammer Verlag
This volume examines how the presence of an American evangelical mission in the borderlands between Qajar Iran and the Ottoman Empire in the nineteenth century contributed to the development of a secular nationalism among the indigenous Neo-Aramaic speaking Christian population of the region. A particular evangelical configuration of modernity was cultivated at the mission in the antebellum period, one belonging to a visceral realm often unrecognised in characterisations of secularism and the Enlightenment.
American Evangelical Missionaries in Iran and the Origins of Assyrian Nationalism
Author: Adam H. Becker
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Concerns over native resistance to evangelization on and beyond the Chichimeca frontier (the frontier between sedentary and nomadic natives) prompted the Augustinian missionaries to use graphic visual images of hell to convince natives to embrace the new faith. The Augustinians believed that they were in a war against Satan.
The Augustinian War on and Beyond the Chichimeca Frontier
Author: Robert H. Jackson
Author: Jean de Béthencourt
This book, the first in our Companions to Medieval Studies series, is a brief introduction to the history, culture, and religion of the Viking Age and provides an essential foundation for study of the period. The companion begins by defining the Viking Age and explores topics such as Viking society and religion. Viking biographies provide students with information on important figures in Viking lore such as Harald Bluetooth, Eirik the Red, Leif Eiriksson, and Gudrid Thorbjarnardaughter, a female Viking traveler. A compelling chapter entitled "How Do We Know About the Vikings?" and a case study on the wandering monks of St. Philibert introduce students to the process of historical inquiry. The book concludes with a discussion of the impact of the Vikings and their legacy. Pedagogical resources include a detailed chronology, study questions, a glossary, 4 maps, and 14 images. Text boxes provide information on outsider perceptions of the Vikings, a detailed account of a Viking raid, and a description of a chieftain's dwelling in Arctic Norway. This study also benefits from a multi-disciplinary approach including insights and evidence from such diverse disciplines as archaeology, philology, religion, linguistics, and genetics.
Author: Angus A. Somerville,R. Andrew McDonald
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
Author: Juan de Castañiza
Category: Christian life
Author: Joseph Jerome Vaughan
Explores questions regarding strategies of recruitment, issues of identification, and modes of conflict between various kinds of Jews and Christians in the New Testament.
Strategies in Judaism, Early Christianity, and the Greco-Roman World
Author: Peder Borgen,Vernon Kay Robbins,David B. Gowler
Publisher: Trinity Press International
Author: Pierre Bontier,Jean de Béthencourt
Category: Canary Islands
Illuminates the career and method of one of thirteenth-century Spain's most important religious, military, and political figures
Archbishop Rodrigo and the Muslims and Jews of Medieval Spain
Author: Lucy K. Pick
Publisher: University of Michigan Press
An epic historical consideration of the Mongol conquest of Western Asia and the spread of Islam during the years of non-Muslim rule The Mongol conquest of the Islamic world began in the early thirteenth century when Genghis Khan and his warriors overran Central Asia and devastated much of Iran. Distinguished historian Peter Jackson offers a fresh and fascinating consideration of the years of infidel Mongol rule in Western Asia, drawing from an impressive array of primary sources as well as modern studies to demonstrate how Islam not only survived the savagery of the conquest, but spread throughout the empire. This unmatched study goes beyond the well-documented Mongol campaigns of massacre and devastation to explore different aspects of an immense imperial event that encompassed what is now Iran, Iraq, Turkey, and Afghanistan, as well as Central Asia and parts of eastern Europe. It examines in depth the cultural consequences for the incorporated Islamic lands, the Muslim experience of Mongol sovereignty, and the conquerors' eventual conversion to Islam.
From Conquest to Conversion
Author: Peter Jackson
Publisher: Yale University Press
An exploration of religious and ethnic conflict in a complex and often misunderstood part of the world.
Author: Jacques Bertrand
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
The war in Iraq has expanded from a struggle between Coalition forces and the remnants of former regime loyalists to a multi-faceted conflict involving numerous Sunni groups, Shi'ite militias, Kurdish nationals, and foreign jihadists. "Iraq's Insurgency and the Road to Civil Conflict" is Anthony Cordesman's latest assessment of the Iraqi conflict and documents its entire evolution, from the history of ethnic tensions through the current U.S. surge. He identifies each actor in the arena, analyzes their motivations, and presents a detailed record of their actions, tactics, and capabilities. Cordesman's exhaustive study, based on meticulous research, is the most thorough account of the war to date. Beginning with the consequences of imperial colonialism and touching upon the ethnic tensions throughout Saddam's regime, Cordesman examines and details the confluence of forces and events that have paved the way toward Iraq's current civil conflict. He analyzes major turning points, including elections, economic developments, and key incidents of violence that continue to shape the war. Finally, he outlines the lessons learned from this history and what can and cannot be done to stabilize the nation.
Author: Anthony H. Cordesman,Emma R. Davies
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
Essays on the Role of Religion in Asia
Author: Dick Kooiman,Otto Diederik van den Muijzenberg,Peter van der Veer
Illuminating the demographic history of the Spanish Philippines in the 16th and 17th centuries, this book demonstrates that the Filipino population suffered a significant decline in the early colonial period.
Author: Linda A. Newson
Publisher: University of Hawaii Press
In 1213, Pope Innocent III issued his letter Vineam Domini, thundering against the enemies of Christendom—the "beasts of many kinds that are attempting to destroy the vineyard of the Lord of Sabaoth"—and announcing a General Council of the Latin Church as redress. The Fourth Lateran Council, which convened in 1215, was unprecedented in its scope and impact, and it called for the Fifth Crusade as what its participants hoped would be the final defense of Christendom. For the first time, a collection of extensively annotated and translated documents illustrates the transformation of the crusade movement. Crusade and Christendom explores the way in which the crusade was used to define and extend the intellectual, religious, and political boundaries of Latin Christendom. It also illustrates how the very concept of the crusade was shaped by the urge to define and reform communities of practice and belief within Latin Christendom and by Latin Christendom's relationship with other communities, including dissenting political powers and heretical groups, the Moors in Spain, the Mongols, and eastern Christians. The relationship of the crusade to reform and missionary movements is also explored, as is its impact on individual lives and devotion. The selection of documents and bibliography incorporates and brings to life recent developments in crusade scholarship concerning military logistics and travel in the medieval period, popular and elite participation, the role of women, liturgy and preaching, and the impact of the crusade on western society and its relationship with other cultures and religions. Intended for the undergraduate yet also invaluable for teachers and scholars, this book illustrates how the crusades became crucial for defining and promoting the very concept and boundaries of Latin Christendom. It provides translations of and commentaries on key original sources and up-to-date bibliographic materials.
Annotated Documents in Translation from Innocent III to the Fall of Acre, 1187-1291
Author: Jessalynn Bird,Edward Peters,James M. Powell
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
This book focuses on the role of memory and its revision and erasure in the ninth to eleventh centuries.
Tradition, Memory, and Conversion
Author: Sarah Bowen Savant
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
The world's three great monotheistic religions have spent most of their historical careers in conflict or competition with each other. And yet in fact they sprung from the same spiritual roots and have been nurtured in the same historical soil. This book--an extraordinarily comprehensive and approachable comparative introduction to these religions--seeks not so much to demonstrate the truth of this thesis as to illustrate it. Frank Peters, one of the world's foremost experts on the monotheistic faiths, takes Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, and after briefly tracing the roots of each, places them side by side to show both their similarities and their differences. Volume I, The Peoples of God, tells the story of the foundation and formation of the three monotheistic communities, of their visible, historical presence. Volume II, The Words and Will of God, is devoted to their inner life, the spirit that animates and regulates them. Peters takes us to where these religions live: their scriptures, laws, institutions, and intentions; how each seeks to worship God and achieve salvation; and how they deal with their own (orthodox and heterodox) and with others (the goyim, the pagans, the infidels). Throughout, he measures--but never judges--one religion against the other. The prose is supple, the method rigorous. This is a remarkably cohesive, informative, and accessible narrative reflecting a lifetime of study by a single recognized authority in all three fields. The Monotheists is a magisterial comparison, for students and general readers as well as scholars, of the parties to one of the most troubling issues of today--the fierce, sometimes productive and often destructive, competition among the world's monotheists, the siblings called Jews, Christians, and Muslims.
The Words and Will of God
Author: F. E. Peters
Publisher: Princeton University Press
This anthology explores the dynamics of shared religious sites in Turkey, the Balkans, Palestine/Israel, Cyprus, and Algeria, indicating where local and national stakeholders maneuver between competition and cooperation, coexistence and conflict. Contributors probe the notion of coexistence and the logic that underlies centuries of "sharing," exploring when and why sharing gets interrupted—or not—by conflict, and the policy consequences. These essays map the choreographies of shared sacred spaces within the framework of state-society relations, juxtaposing a site's political and religious features and exploring whether sharing or contestation is primarily religious or politically motivated. Although religion and politics are intertwined phenomena, the contributors to this volume understand the category of "religion" and the "political" as devices meant to distinguish between the theological and confessional aspects of religion and the political goals of groups. Their comparative approach better represents the transition in some cases of sites into places of hatred and violence, while in other instances they remain noncontroversial. The essays clearly delineate the religious and political factors that contribute to the context and causality of conflict at these sites and draw on history and anthropology to shed light on the often rapid switch from relative tolerance to distress to peace and calm.
Religion, Politics, and Conflict Resolution
Author: Elazar Barkan,Karen Barkey
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Category: Political Science