*Algorithms and Hardware Designs*

Author: Behrooz Parhami

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780195328486

Category: Computers

Page: 641

View: 504

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## Computer Arithmetic

Ideal for graduate and senior undergraduate courses in computer arithmetic and advanced digital design, Computer Arithmetic: Algorithms and Hardware Designs, Second Edition, provides a balanced, comprehensive treatment of computer arithmetic. It covers topics in arithmetic unit design and circuit implementation that complement the architectural and algorithmic speedup techniques used in high-performance computer architecture and parallel processing. Using a unified and consistent framework, the text begins with number representation and proceeds through basic arithmetic operations, floating-point arithmetic, and function evaluation methods. Later chapters cover broad design and implementation topics-including techniques for high-throughput, low-power, fault-tolerant, and reconfigurable arithmetic. An appendix provides a historical view of the field and speculates on its future. An indispensable resource for instruction, professional development, and research, Computer Arithmetic: Algorithms and Hardware Designs, Second Edition, combines broad coverage of the underlying theories of computer arithmetic with numerous examples of practical designs, worked-out examples, and a large collection of meaningful problems. This second edition includes a new chapter on reconfigurable arithmetic, in order to address the fact that arithmetic functions are increasingly being implemented on field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and FPGA-like configurable devices. Updated and thoroughly revised, the book offers new and expanded coverage of saturating adders and multipliers, truncated multipliers, fused multiply-add units, overlapped quotient digit selection, bipartite and multipartite tables, reversible logic, dot notation, modular arithmetic, Montgomery modular reduction, division by constants, IEEE floating-point standard formats, and interval arithmetic. Features: * Divided into 28 lecture-size chapters * Emphasizes both the underlying theories of computer arithmetic and actual hardware designs * Carefully links computer arithmetic to other subfields of computer engineering * Includes 717 end-of-chapter problems ranging in complexity from simple exercises to mini-projects * Incorporates many examples of practical designs * Uses consistent standardized notation throughout * Instructor's manual includes solutions to text problems * An author-maintained website http://www.ece.ucsb.edu/~parhami/text_comp_arit.htm contains instructor resources, including complete lecture slides
## Computer Arithmetic

The subject of this book is the analysis and design of digital devices that implement computer arithmetic. The book's presentation of high-level detail, descriptions, formalisms and design principles means that it can support many research activities in this field, with an emphasis on bridging the gap between algorithm optimization and hardware implementation. The author provides a unified view linking the domains of digital design and arithmetic algorithms, based on original formalisms and hardware description languages. A feature of the book is the large number of examples and the implementation details provided. While the author does not avoid high-level details, providing for example gate-level designs for all matrix/combinational arithmetic structures. The book is suitable for researchers and students engaged with hardware design in computer science and engineering. A feature of the book is the large number of examples and the implementation details provided. While the author does not avoid high-level details, providing for example gate-level designs for all matrix/combinational arithmetic structures. The book is suitable for researchers and students engaged with hardware design in computer science and engineering.
## Computer Arithmetic and Verilog HDL Fundamentals

Verilog Hardware Description Language (HDL) is the state-of-the-art method for designing digital and computer systems. Ideally suited to describe both combinational and clocked sequential arithmetic circuits, Verilog facilitates a clear relationship between the language syntax and the physical hardware. It provides a very easy-to-learn and practical means to model a digital system at many levels of abstraction. Computer Arithmetic and Verilog HDL Fundamentals details the steps needed to master computer arithmetic for fixed-point, decimal, and floating-point number representations for all primary operations. Silvaco International’s SILOS, the Verilog simulator used in these pages, is simple to understand, yet powerful enough for any application. It encourages users to quickly prototype and de-bug any logic function and enables single-stepping through the Verilog source code. It also presents drag-and-drop abilities. Introducing the three main modeling methods—dataflow, behavioral, and structural—this self-contained tutorial— Covers the number systems of different radices, such as octal, decimal, hexadecimal, and binary-coded variations Reviews logic design fundamentals, including Boolean algebra and minimization techniques for switching functions Presents basic methods for fixed-point addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, including the use of decimals in all four operations Addresses floating-point addition and subtraction with several numerical examples and flowcharts that graphically illustrate steps required for true addition and subtraction for floating-point operands Demonstrates floating-point division, including the generation of a zero-biased exponent Designed for electrical and computer engineers and computer scientists, this book leaves nothing unfinished, carrying design examples through to completion. The goal is practical proficiency. To this end, each chapter includes problems of varying complexity to be designed by the reader.
## Digital Arithmetic

The authoritative reference on the theory and design practice of computer arithmetic.
## Computer Arithmetic Algorithms, Second Edition

This text explains the fundamental principles of algorithms available for performing arithmetic operations on digital computers. These include basic arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division in fixed-point and floating-point number systems as well as more complex operations such as square root extraction and evaluation of exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions. The algorithms described are independent of the particular technology employed for their implementation.
## Advanced computer arithmetic design

Innovative techniques and cutting-edge research in computer arithmetic design Computer arithmetic is a fundamental discipline that drives many modern digital technologies. High-performance VLSI implementations of 3-D graphics, encryption, streaming digital audio and video, and signal processing all require fast and efficient computer arithmetic algorithms. The demand for these fast implementations has led to a wealth of new research in innovative techniques and designs. Advanced Computer Arithmetic Design is the result of ten years of effort at Stanford University under the Sub-Nanosecond Arithmetic Processor (SNAP) project, which author Michael Flynn directs. Written with computer designers and researchers in mind, this volume focuses on design, rather than on other aspects of computer arithmetic such as number systems, representation, or precision. Each chapter begins with a review of conventional design approaches, analyzes the possibilities for improvement, and presents new research that advances the state of the art. The authors present new data in these vital areas: * Addition and the Ling adder * Improvements to floating-point addition * Encoding to reduce execution times for multiplication * The effects of technology scaling on multiplication * Techniques for floating-point division * Approximation techniques for high-level functions such as square root, logarithms, and trigonometric functions * Assessing cost performance of arithmetic units * Clocking to increase computer operation frequency * New implementation of continued fractions to the approximation of functions This volume presents the results of a decade's research in innovative and progressive design techniques. Covering all the most important research topics in the field, Advanced Computer Arithmetic Design is the most up-to-date and comprehensive treatment of new research currently available.
## Hardware Implementation of Finite-Field Arithmetic

Implement Finite-Field Arithmetic in Specific Hardware (FPGA and ASIC) Master cutting-edge electronic circuit synthesis and design with help from this detailed guide. Hardware Implementation of Finite-Field Arithmetic describes algorithms and circuits for executing finite-field operations, including addition, subtraction, multiplication, squaring, exponentiation, and division. This comprehensive resource begins with an overview of mathematics, covering algebra, number theory, finite fields, and cryptography. The book then presents algorithms which can be executed and verified with actual input data. Logic schemes and VHDL models are described in such a way that the corresponding circuits can be easily simulated and synthesized. The book concludes with a real-world example of a finite-field application--elliptic-curve cryptography. This is an essential guide for hardware engineers involved in the development of embedded systems. Get detailed coverage of: Modulo m reduction Modulo m addition, subtraction, multiplication, and exponentiation Operations over GF(p) and GF(pm) Operations over the commutative ring Zp[x]/f(x) Operations over the binary field GF(2m) using normal, polynomial, dual, and triangular
## Numerical Methods

Numerical Methods provides a clear and concise exploration of standard numerical analysis topics, as well as nontraditional ones, including mathematical modeling, Monte Carlo methods, Markov chains, and fractals. Filled with appealing examples that will motivate students, the textbook considers modern application areas, such as information retrieval and animation, and classical topics from physics and engineering. Exercises use MATLAB and promote understanding of computational results. The book gives instructors the flexibility to emphasize different aspects--design, analysis, or computer implementation--of numerical algorithms, depending on the background and interests of students. Designed for upper-division undergraduates in mathematics or computer science classes, the textbook assumes that students have prior knowledge of linear algebra and calculus, although these topics are reviewed in the text. Short discussions of the history of numerical methods are interspersed throughout the chapters. The book also includes polynomial interpolation at Chebyshev points, use of the MATLAB package Chebfun, and a section on the fast Fourier transform. Supplementary materials are available online. Clear and concise exposition of standard numerical analysis topics Explores nontraditional topics, such as mathematical modeling and Monte Carlo methods Covers modern applications, including information retrieval and animation, and classical applications from physics and engineering Promotes understanding of computational results through MATLAB exercises Provides flexibility so instructors can emphasize mathematical or applied/computational aspects of numerical methods or a combination Includes recent results on polynomial interpolation at Chebyshev points and use of the MATLAB package Chebfun Short discussions of the history of numerical methods interspersed throughout Supplementary materials available online
## Computer Organization and Design RISC-V Edition

The new RISC-V Edition of Computer Organization and Design features the RISC-V open source instruction set architecture, the first open source architecture designed to be used in modern computing environments such as cloud computing, mobile devices, and other embedded systems. With the post-PC era now upon us, Computer Organization and Design moves forward to explore this generational change with examples, exercises, and material highlighting the emergence of mobile computing and the Cloud. Updated content featuring tablet computers, Cloud infrastructure, and the x86 (cloud computing) and ARM (mobile computing devices) architectures is included. An online companion Web site provides advanced content for further study, appendices, glossary, references, and recommended reading. Features RISC-V, the first such architecture designed to be used in modern computing environments, such as cloud computing, mobile devices, and other embedded systems Includes relevant examples, exercises, and material highlighting the emergence of mobile computing and the cloud
## Elementary Functions

This textbook presents the concepts and tools necessary to understand, build, and implement algorithms for computing elementary functions (e.g., logarithms, exponentials, and the trigonometric functions). Both hardware- and software-oriented algorithms are included, along with issues related to accurate floating-point implementation. This third edition has been updated and expanded to incorporate the most recent advances in the field, new elementary function algorithms, and function software. After a preliminary chapter that briefly introduces some fundamental concepts of computer arithmetic, such as floating-point arithmetic and redundant number systems, the text is divided into three main parts. Part I considers the computation of elementary functions using algorithms based on polynomial or rational approximations and using table-based methods; the final chapter in this section deals with basic principles of multiple-precision arithmetic. Part II is devoted to a presentation of “shift-and-add” algorithms (hardware-oriented algorithms that use additions and shifts only). Issues related to accuracy, including range reduction, preservation of monotonicity, and correct rounding, as well as some examples of implementation are explored in Part III. Numerous examples of command lines and full programs are provided throughout for various software packages, including Maple, Sollya, and Gappa. New to this edition are an in-depth overview of the IEEE-754-2008 standard for floating-point arithmetic; a section on using double- and triple-word numbers; a presentation of new tools for designing accurate function software; and a section on the Toom-Cook family of multiplication algorithms. The techniques presented in this book will be of interest to implementers of elementary function libraries or circuits and programmers of numerical applications. Additionally, graduate and advanced undergraduate students, professionals, and researchers in scientific computing, numerical analysis, software engineering, and computer engineering will find this a useful reference and resource. PRAISE FOR PREVIOUS EDITIONS “[T]his book seems like an essential reference for the experts (which I'm not). More importantly, this is an interesting book for the curious (which I am). In this case, you'll probably learn many interesting things from this book. If you teach numerical analysis or approximation theory, then this book will give you some good examples to discuss in class." — MAA Reviews (Review of Second Edition) "The rich content of ideas sketched or presented in some detail in this book is supplemented by a list of over three hundred references, most of them of 1980 or more recent. The book also contains some relevant typical programs." — Zentralblatt MATH (Review of Second Edition) “I think that the book will be very valuable to students both in numerical analysis and in computer science. I found [it to be] well written and containing much interesting material, most of the time disseminated in specialized papers published in specialized journals difficult to find." — Numerical Algorithms (Review of First Edition)
## Nine Algorithms That Changed the Future

Every day, we use our computers to perform remarkable feats. A simple web search picks out a handful of relevant needles from the world's biggest haystack: the billions of pages on the World Wide Web. Uploading a photo to Facebook transmits millions of pieces of information over numerous error-prone network links, yet somehow a perfect copy of the photo arrives intact. Without even knowing it, we use public-key cryptography to transmit secret information like credit card numbers; and we use digital signatures to verify the identity of the websites we visit. How do our computers perform these tasks with such ease? This is the first book to answer that question in language anyone can understand, revealing the extraordinary ideas that power our PCs, laptops, and smartphones. Using vivid examples, John MacCormick explains the fundamental "tricks" behind nine types of computer algorithms, including artificial intelligence (where we learn about the "nearest neighbor trick" and "twenty questions trick"), Google's famous PageRank algorithm (which uses the "random surfer trick"), data compression, error correction, and much more. These revolutionary algorithms have changed our world: this book unlocks their secrets, and lays bare the incredible ideas that our computers use every day.
## Principles of Computer Hardware

The fourth edition of this work provides a readable, tutorial based introduction to the subject of computer hardware for undergraduate computer scientists and engineers and includes a companion website to give lecturers additional notes.
## Introduction to Parallel Processing

THE CONTEXT OF PARALLEL PROCESSING The field of digital computer architecture has grown explosively in the past two decades. Through a steady stream of experimental research, tool-building efforts, and theoretical studies, the design of an instruction-set architecture, once considered an art, has been transformed into one of the most quantitative branches of computer technology. At the same time, better understanding of various forms of concurrency, from standard pipelining to massive parallelism, and invention of architectural structures to support a reasonably efficient and user-friendly programming model for such systems, has allowed hardware performance to continue its exponential growth. This trend is expected to continue in the near future. This explosive growth, linked with the expectation that performance will continue its exponential rise with each new generation of hardware and that (in stark contrast to software) computer hardware will function correctly as soon as it comes off the assembly line, has its down side. It has led to unprecedented hardware complexity and almost intolerable dev- opment costs. The challenge facing current and future computer designers is to institute simplicity where we now have complexity; to use fundamental theories being developed in this area to gain performance and ease-of-use benefits from simpler circuits; to understand the interplay between technological capabilities and limitations, on the one hand, and design decisions based on user and application requirements on the other.
## Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs

Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs has had a dramatic impact on computer science curricula over the past decade. This long-awaited revision contains changes throughout the text. There are new implementations of most of the major programming systems in the book, including the interpreters and compilers, and the authors have incorporated many small changes that reflect their experience teaching the course at MIT since the first edition was published. A new theme has been introduced that emphasizes the central role played by different approaches to dealing with time in computational models: objects with state, concurrent programming, functional programming and lazy evaluation, and nondeterministic programming. There are new example sections on higher-order procedures in graphics and on applications of stream processing in numerical programming, and many new exercises. In addition, all the programs have been reworked to run in any Scheme implementation that adheres to the IEEE standard.
## The Development of Computer Science: A Sociocultural Perspective

## An Introduction to Quantum Computing

The authors provide an introduction to quantum computing. Aimed at advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in these disciplines, this text is illustrated with diagrams and exercises.
## Elementary Functions

This textbook presents the concepts and tools necessary to understand, build, and implement algorithms for computing elementary functions (e.g., logarithms, exponentials, and the trigonometric functions). Both hardware- and software-oriented algorithms are included, along with issues related to accurate floating-point implementation. This third edition has been updated and expanded to incorporate the most recent advances in the field, new elementary function algorithms, and function software. After a preliminary chapter that briefly introduces some fundamental concepts of computer arithmetic, such as floating-point arithmetic and redundant number systems, the text is divided into three main parts. Part I considers the computation of elementary functions using algorithms based on polynomial or rational approximations and using table-based methods; the final chapter in this section deals with basic principles of multiple-precision arithmetic. Part II is devoted to a presentation of “shift-and-add” algorithms (hardware-oriented algorithms that use additions and shifts only). Issues related to accuracy, including range reduction, preservation of monotonicity, and correct rounding, as well as some examples of implementation are explored in Part III. Numerous examples of command lines and full programs are provided throughout for various software packages, including Maple, Sollya, and Gappa. New to this edition are an in-depth overview of the IEEE-754-2008 standard for floating-point arithmetic; a section on using double- and triple-word numbers; a presentation of new tools for designing accurate function software; and a section on the Toom-Cook family of multiplication algorithms. The techniques presented in this book will be of interest to implementers of elementary function libraries or circuits and programmers of numerical applications. Additionally, graduate and advanced undergraduate students, professionals, and researchers in scientific computing, numerical analysis, software engineering, and computer engineering will find this a useful reference and resource. PRAISE FOR PREVIOUS EDITIONS “[T]his book seems like an essential reference for the experts (which I'm not). More importantly, this is an interesting book for the curious (which I am). In this case, you'll probably learn many interesting things from this book. If you teach numerical analysis or approximation theory, then this book will give you some good examples to discuss in class." — MAA Reviews (Review of Second Edition) "The rich content of ideas sketched or presented in some detail in this book is supplemented by a list of over three hundred references, most of them of 1980 or more recent. The book also contains some relevant typical programs." — Zentralblatt MATH (Review of Second Edition) “I think that the book will be very valuable to students both in numerical analysis and in computer science. I found [it to be] well written and containing much interesting material, most of the time disseminated in specialized papers published in specialized journals difficult to find." — Numerical Algorithms (Review of First Edition)
## Modern Computer Arithmetic

Modern Computer Arithmetic focuses on arbitrary-precision algorithms for efficiently performing arithmetic operations such as addition, multiplication and division, and their connections to topics such as modular arithmetic, greatest common divisors, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), and the computation of elementary and special functions. Brent and Zimmermann present algorithms that are ready to implement in your favourite language, while keeping a high-level description and avoiding too low-level or machine-dependent details. The book is intended for anyone interested in the design and implementation of efficient high-precision algorithms for computer arithmetic, and more generally efficient multiple-precision numerical algorithms. It may also be used in a graduate course in mathematics or computer science, for which exercises are included. These vary considerably in difficulty, from easy to small research projects, and expand on topics discussed in the text. Solutions to selected exercises are available from the authors.
## The Quest for Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) is a field within computer science that is attempting to build enhanced intelligence into computer systems. This book traces the history of the subject, from the early dreams of eighteenth-century (and earlier) pioneers to the more successful work of today's AI engineers. AI is becoming more and more a part of everyone's life. The technology is already embedded in face-recognizing cameras, speech-recognition software, Internet search engines, and health-care robots, among other applications. The book's many diagrams and easy-to-understand descriptions of AI programs will help the casual reader gain an understanding of how these and other AI systems actually work. Its thorough (but unobtrusive) end-of-chapter notes containing citations to important source materials will be of great use to AI scholars and researchers. This book promises to be the definitive history of a field that has captivated the imaginations of scientists, philosophers, and writers for centuries.

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*Algorithms and Hardware Designs*

Author: Behrooz Parhami

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780195328486

Category: Computers

Page: 641

View: 504

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