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## Computability Theory

Computability theory originated with the seminal work of Gödel, Church, Turing, Kleene and Post in the 1930s. This theory includes a wide spectrum of topics, such as the theory of reducibilities and their degree structures, computably enumerable sets and their automorphisms, and subrecursive hierarchy classifications. Recent work in computability theory has focused on Turing definability and promises to have far-reaching mathematical, scientific, and philosophical consequences. Written by a leading researcher, Computability Theory provides a concise, comprehensive, and authoritative introduction to contemporary computability theory, techniques, and results. The basic concepts and techniques of computability theory are placed in their historical, philosophical and logical context. This presentation is characterized by an unusual breadth of coverage and the inclusion of advanced topics not to be found elsewhere in the literature at this level. The book includes both the standard material for a first course in computability and more advanced looks at degree structures, forcing, priority methods, and determinacy. The final chapter explores a variety of computability applications to mathematics and science. Computability Theory is an invaluable text, reference, and guide to the direction of current research in the field. Nowhere else will you find the techniques and results of this beautiful and basic subject brought alive in such an approachable and lively way.
## Computability Theory

What can we compute--even with unlimited resources? Is everything within reach? Or are computations necessarily drastically limited, not just in practice, but theoretically? These questions are at the heart of computability theory. The goal of this book is to give the reader a firm grounding in the fundamentals of computability theory and an overview of currently active areas of research, such as reverse mathematics and algorithmic randomness. Turing machines and partial recursive functions are explored in detail, and vital tools and concepts including coding, uniformity, and diagonalization are described explicitly. From there the material continues with universal machines, the halting problem, parametrization and the recursion theorem, and thence to computability for sets, enumerability, and Turing reduction and degrees. A few more advanced topics round out the book before the chapter on areas of research. The text is designed to be self-contained, with an entire chapter of preliminary material including relations, recursion, induction, and logical and set notation and operators. That background, along with ample explanation, examples, exercises, and suggestions for further reading, make this book ideal for independent study or courses with few prerequisites.
## The Incomputable

This book questions the relevance of computation to the physical universe. Our theories deliver computational descriptions, but the gaps and discontinuities in our grasp suggest a need for continued discourse between researchers from different disciplines, and this book is unique in its focus on the mathematical theory of incomputability and its relevance for the real world. The core of the book consists of thirteen chapters in five parts on extended models of computation; the search for natural examples of incomputable objects; mind, matter, and computation; the nature of information, complexity, and randomness; and the mathematics of emergence and morphogenesis. This book will be of interest to researchers in the areas of theoretical computer science, mathematical logic, and philosophy.
## Mathematical and Algorithmic Foundations of the Internet

To truly understand how the Internet and Web are organized and function requires knowledge of mathematics and computation theory. Mathematical and Algorithmic Foundations of the Internet introduces the concepts and methods upon which computer networks rely and explores their applications to the Internet and Web. The book offers a unique approach to mathematical and algorithmic concepts, demonstrating their universality by presenting ideas and examples from various fields, including literature, history, and art. Progressing from fundamental concepts to more specific topics and applications, the text covers computational complexity and randomness, networks and graphs, parallel and distributed computing, and search engines. While the mathematical treatment is rigorous, it is presented at a level that can be grasped by readers with an elementary mathematical background. The authors also present a lighter side to this complex subject by illustrating how many of the mathematical concepts have counterparts in everyday life. The book provides in-depth coverage of the mathematical prerequisites and assembles a complete presentation of how computer networks function. It is a useful resource for anyone interested in the inner functioning, design, and organization of the Internet.
## Theory and Applications of Models of Computation

This proceedings volume examines all major areas in computer science, mathematics (especially logic) and the physical sciences, especially computation, algorithms, complexity and computability theory.
## Cylindric-like Algebras and Algebraic Logic

Algebraic logic is a subject in the interface between logic, algebra and geometry, it has strong connections with category theory and combinatorics. Tarski’s quest for finding structure in logic leads to cylindric-like algebras as studied in this book, they are among the main players in Tarskian algebraic logic. Cylindric algebra theory can be viewed in many ways: as an algebraic form of definability theory, as a study of higher-dimensional relations, as an enrichment of Boolean Algebra theory, or, as logic in geometric form (“cylindric” in the name refers to geometric aspects). Cylindric-like algebras have a wide range of applications, in, e.g., natural language theory, data-base theory, stochastics, and even in relativity theory. The present volume, consisting of 18 survey papers, intends to give an overview of the main achievements and new research directions in the past 30 years, since the publication of the Henkin-Monk-Tarski monographs. It is dedicated to the memory of Leon Henkin.
## Theory and Applications of Satisfiability Testing - SAT 2014

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Theory and Applications of Satisfiability Testing, SAT 2014, held as part of the Vienna Summer of Logic, VSL 2014, in Vienna, Austria, in July 2014. The 21 regular papers, 7 short papers and 4 tool papers presented together with 2 invited talks were carefully reviewed and selected from 78 submissions. The papers have been organized in the following topical sections: maximum satisfiability; minimal unsatisfiability; complexity and reductions; proof complexity; parallel and incremental (Q)SAT; applications; structure; simplification and solving; and analysis.
## Intelligent Business Process Optimization for the Service Industry

## Computability and Complexity Theory

This revised and extensively expanded edition of Computability and Complexity Theory comprises essential materials that are core knowledge in the theory of computation. The book is self-contained, with a preliminary chapter describing key mathematical concepts and notations. Subsequent chapters move from the qualitative aspects of classical computability theory to the quantitative aspects of complexity theory. Dedicated chapters on undecidability, NP-completeness, and relative computability focus on the limitations of computability and the distinctions between feasible and intractable. Substantial new content in this edition includes: a chapter on nonuniformity studying Boolean circuits, advice classes and the important result of Karp─Lipton. a chapter studying properties of the fundamental probabilistic complexity classes a study of the alternating Turing machine and uniform circuit classes. an introduction of counting classes, proving the famous results of Valiant and Vazirani and of Toda a thorough treatment of the proof that IP is identical to PSPACE With its accessibility and well-devised organization, this text/reference is an excellent resource and guide for those looking to develop a solid grounding in the theory of computing. Beginning graduates, advanced undergraduates, and professionals involved in theoretical computer science, complexity theory, and computability will find the book an essential and practical learning tool. Topics and features: Concise, focused materials cover the most fundamental concepts and results in the field of modern complexity theory, including the theory of NP-completeness, NP-hardness, the polynomial hierarchy, and complete problems for other complexity classes Contains information that otherwise exists only in research literature and presents it in a unified, simplified manner Provides key mathematical background information, including sections on logic and number theory and algebra Supported by numerous exercises and supplementary problems for reinforcement and self-study purposes
## Computability

This classic presentation of the theory of computable functions includes discussions and readings about the crisis in the foundations of mathematics in the early 20th century, while presenting the basic ideas of whole number, function, proof, and real number.
## Introduction to Mathematical Logic, Fourth Edition

The Fourth Edition of this long-established text retains all the key features of the previous editions, covering the basic topics of a solid first course in mathematical logic. This edition includes an extensive appendix on second-order logic, a section on set theory with urlements, and a section on the logic that results when we allow models with empty domains. The text contains numerous exercises and an appendix furnishes answers to many of them. Introduction to Mathematical Logic includes: propositional logic first-order logic first-order number theory and the incompleteness and undecidability theorems of Gödel, Rosser, Church, and Tarski axiomatic set theory theory of computability The study of mathematical logic, axiomatic set theory, and computability theory provides an understanding of the fundamental assumptions and proof techniques that form basis of mathematics. Logic and computability theory have also become indispensable tools in theoretical computer science, including artificial intelligence. Introduction to Mathematical Logic covers these topics in a clear, reader-friendly style that will be valued by anyone working in computer science as well as lecturers and researchers in mathematics, philosophy, and related fields.
## Algorithms and Theory of Computation Handbook, Second Edition, Volume 2

Algorithms and Theory of Computation Handbook, Second Edition: Special Topics and Techniques provides an up-to-date compendium of fundamental computer science topics and techniques. It also illustrates how the topics and techniques come together to deliver efficient solutions to important practical problems. Along with updating and revising many of the existing chapters, this second edition contains more than 15 new chapters. This edition now covers self-stabilizing and pricing algorithms as well as the theories of privacy and anonymity, databases, computational games, and communication networks. It also discusses computational topology, natural language processing, and grid computing and explores applications in intensity-modulated radiation therapy, voting, DNA research, systems biology, and financial derivatives. This best-selling handbook continues to help computer professionals and engineers find significant information on various algorithmic topics. The expert contributors clearly define the terminology, present basic results and techniques, and offer a number of current references to the in-depth literature. They also provide a glimpse of the major research issues concerning the relevant topics.
## Introduction to Cryptography with Mathematical Foundations and Computer Implementations

From the exciting history of its development in ancient times to the present day, Introduction to Cryptography with Mathematical Foundations and Computer Implementations provides a focused tour of the central concepts of cryptography. Rather than present an encyclopedic treatment of topics in cryptography, it delineates cryptographic concepts in chronological order, developing the mathematics as needed. Written in an engaging yet rigorous style, each chapter introduces important concepts with clear definitions and theorems. Numerous examples explain key points while figures and tables help illustrate more difficult or subtle concepts. Each chapter is punctuated with "Exercises for the Reader;" complete solutions for these are included in an appendix. Carefully crafted exercise sets are also provided at the end of each chapter, and detailed solutions to most odd-numbered exercises can be found in a designated appendix. The computer implementation section at the end of every chapter guides students through the process of writing their own programs. A supporting website provides an extensive set of sample programs as well as downloadable platform-independent applet pages for some core programs and algorithms. As the reliance on cryptography by business, government, and industry continues and new technologies for transferring data become available, cryptography plays a permanent, important role in day-to-day operations. This self-contained sophomore-level text traces the evolution of the field, from its origins through present-day cryptosystems, including public key cryptography and elliptic curve cryptography.
## Model Theory

Logic languages are free from the ambiguities of natural languages, and are therefore specially suited for use in computing. Model theory is the branch of mathematical logic which concerns the relationship between mathematical structures and logic languages, and has become increasinglyimportant in areas such as computing, philosophy and linguistics. As the reasoning process takes place at a very abstract level, model theory applies to a wide variety of structures. It is also possible to define new structures and classify existing ones by establishing links between them. Theselinks can be very useful since they allow us to transfer our knowledge between related structures. This book provides a clear and readable introduction to the subject, and is suitable for both mathematicians and students from outside the subject. It includes some historically relevant informationbefore each major topic is introduced, making it a useful reference for non-experts. The motivation of the subject is constantly explained, and proofs are also explained in detail.
## Invariant Descriptive Set Theory

Presents Results from a Very Active Area of Research Exploring an active area of mathematics that studies the complexity of equivalence relations and classification problems, Invariant Descriptive Set Theory presents an introduction to the basic concepts, methods, and results of this theory. It brings together techniques from various areas of mathematics, such as algebra, topology, and logic, which have diverse applications to other fields. After reviewing classical and effective descriptive set theory, the text studies Polish groups and their actions. It then covers Borel reducibility results on Borel, orbit, and general definable equivalence relations. The author also provides proofs for numerous fundamental results, such as the Glimm–Effros dichotomy, the Burgess trichotomy theorem, and the Hjorth turbulence theorem. The next part describes connections with the countable model theory of infinitary logic, along with Scott analysis and the isomorphism relation on natural classes of countable models, such as graphs, trees, and groups. The book concludes with applications to classification problems and many benchmark equivalence relations. By illustrating the relevance of invariant descriptive set theory to other fields of mathematics, this self-contained book encourages readers to further explore this very active area of research.
## Fundamentals of Mathematical Logic

This introductory graduate text covers modern mathematical logic from propositional, first-order and infinitary logic and Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems to extensive introductions to set theory, model theory and recursion (computability) theory. Based on the author's more than 35 years of teaching experience, the book develops students' intuition by presenting complex ideas in the simplest context for which they make sense. The book is appropriate for use as a classroom text, for self-study, and as a reference on the state of modern logic.
## Sets, Functions, and Logic

Keith Devlin. You know him. You've read his columns in MAA Online, you've heard him on the radio, and you've seen his popular mathematics books. In between all those activities and his own research, he's been hard at work revising Sets, Functions and Logic, his standard-setting text that has smoothed the road to pure mathematics for legions of undergraduate students. Now in its third edition, Devlin has fully reworked the book to reflect a new generation. The narrative is more lively and less textbook-like. Remarks and asides link the topics presented to the real world of students' experience. The chapter on complex numbers and the discussion of formal symbolic logic are gone in favor of more exercises, and a new introductory chapter on the nature of mathematics--one that motivates readers and sets the stage for the challenges that lie ahead. Students crossing the bridge from calculus to higher mathematics need and deserve all the help they can get. Sets, Functions, and Logic, Third Edition is an affordable little book that all of your transition-course students not only can afford, but will actually read...and enjoy...and learn from. About the Author Dr. Keith Devlin is Executive Director of Stanford University's Center for the Study of Language and Information and a Consulting Professor of Mathematics at Stanford. He has written 23 books, one interactive book on CD-ROM, and over 70 published research articles. He is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a World Economic Forum Fellow, and a former member of the Mathematical Sciences Education Board of the National Academy of Sciences,. Dr. Devlin is also one of the world's leading popularizers of mathematics. Known as "The Math Guy" on NPR's Weekend Edition, he is a frequent contributor to other local and national radio and TV shows in the US and Britain, writes a monthly column for the Web journal MAA Online, and regularly writes on mathematics and computers for the British newspaper The Guardian.
## A Tour Through Mathematical Logic

The foundations of mathematics include mathematical logic, set theory, recursion theory, model theory, and Gdel's incompleteness theorems. Professor Wolf provides here a guide that any interested reader with some post-calculus experience in mathematics can read, enjoy, and learn from. It could also serve as a textbook for courses in the foundations of mathematics, at the undergraduate or graduate level. The book is deliberately less structured and more user-friendly than standard texts on foundations, so will also be attractive to those outside the classroom environment wanting to learn about the subject.
## Algorithmic Combinatorics on Partial Words

The discrete mathematics and theoretical computer science communities have recently witnessed explosive growth in the area of algorithmic combinatorics on words. The next generation of research on combinatorics of partial words promises to have a substantial impact on molecular biology, nanotechnology, data communication, and DNA computing. Delving into this emerging research area, Algorithmic Combinatorics on Partial Words presents a mathematical treatment of combinatorics on partial words designed around algorithms and explores up-and-coming techniques for solving partial word problems as well as the future direction of research. This five-part book begins with a section on basics that covers terminology, the compatibility of partial words, and combinatorial properties of words. The book then focuses on three important concepts of periodicity on partial words: period, weak period, and local period. The next part describes a linear time algorithm to test primitivity on partial words and extends the results on unbordered words to unbordered partial words while the following section introduces some important properties of pcodes, details a variety of ways of defining and analyzing pcodes, and shows that the pcode property is decidable using two different techniques. In the final part, the author solves various equations on partial words, presents binary and ternary correlations, and covers unavoidable sets of partial words. Setting the tone for future research in this field, this book lucidly develops the central ideas and results of combinatorics on partial words.

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