Cognitive Anthropology

Its Evolution and Contemporary Relevance

Author: Dessalegn Oulte

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 3640880021

Category:

Page: 28

View: 7979

Scholarly Essay from the year 2011 in the subject Pedagogy - Science, Theory, Anthropology, grade: -, - (paleoenvironment and Heritage conservation), course: Anthropology Tehoery, language: English, abstract: To redefine cogitative anthropology based on the definitions of a range of literature assessed for this paper, it is an idealistic approach, studies the interaction between human thought and human culture. To be specific, it studies how each group of society organize and perceive the physical objects, events, and experiences that make up their world. Cognitive anthropology gives attention how people make sense of reality according to their own indigenous cognitive faculty unlike the anthropologist point of view, known as emic vs. etic theoretical approach. Cognitive anthropology speculates that each culture organizes and understands events material life and ideas to its own standard. Hence, the primary objective of cognitive anthropology is reliably characterizing the underlying logical systems of thought of other people according to criteria, which can be discovered and replicated through analysis (Robertson & Beasley, 2011; Class lecture handout).
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Anthropology and the Cognitive Challenge

Author: Maurice Bloch

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521006155

Category: History

Page: 234

View: 3957

One of the world's most distinguished anthropologists proposes that cognitive science enriches, rather than threatens, the work of social scientists.
Posted in History

A Companion to Cognitive Anthropology

Author: David B. Kronenfeld

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111911165X

Category: Social Science

Page: 624

View: 2558

"This new companion traces the development of cognitive anthropology from its beginnings in the late 1950s to the present, and evaluates future directions of research in the field. In twenty-nine articles from leading anthropologists, there is an overview of cognitive and cultural structures, insights into how cognition works in everyday life and interacts with culture, and examples of contemporary research. The companion is essential for anyone interested in the questions of how culture shapes cognitive processes"--
Posted in Social Science

Anthropology and Development

Understanding Contemporary Social Change

Author: Jean-Pierre Oliver De-Sardan

Publisher: Zed Books Ltd.

ISBN: 1848136137

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 2327

This book re-establishes the relevance of mainstream anthropological (and sociological) approaches to development processes and simultaneously recognizes that contemporary development ought to be anthropology‘s principal area of study. Professor de Sardan argues for a socio-anthropology of change and development that is a deeply empirical, multidimensional, diachronic study of social groups and their interactions. The Introduction provides a thought-provoking examination of the principal new approaches that have emerged in the discipline during the 1990s. Part I then makes clear the complexity of social change and development, and the ways in which socio-anthropology can measure up to the challenge of this complexity. Part II looks more closely at some of the leading variables involved in the development process, including relations of production; the logics of social action; the nature of knowledge; forms of mediation; and ‘political‘ strategies.
Posted in Social Science

Cognition in the Wild

Author: Edwin Hutchins

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262082310

Category: Psychology

Page: 381

View: 5302

Hutchins examines a set of phenomena that have fallen between the established disciplines of psychology and anthropology, bringing to light a new set of relationships between culture and cognition. The standard view is that culture affects the cognition of individuals. Hutchins argues instead that cultural activity systems have cognitive properties of their own that differ from the cognitive properties of the individuals who participate in them. Each action for bringing a large naval vessel into port, for example, is informed by culture; thus the navigation team can be seen as a cognitive and computational system
Posted in Psychology

A Companion to Cognitive Anthropology

Author: David B. Kronenfeld

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111911165X

Category: Social Science

Page: 624

View: 7609

"This new companion traces the development of cognitive anthropology from its beginnings in the late 1950s to the present, and evaluates future directions of research in the field. In twenty-nine articles from leading anthropologists, there is an overview of cognitive and cultural structures, insights into how cognition works in everyday life and interacts with culture, and examples of contemporary research. The companion is essential for anyone interested in the questions of how culture shapes cognitive processes"--
Posted in Social Science

The Development of Cognitive Anthropology

Author: Roy G. D'Andrade

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521459761

Category: Psychology

Page: 272

View: 8741

In a historical account of the development of cognitive anthropology, Roy D'Andrade examines how cultural knowledge is organized within and between human minds. He begins by examining research carried out in the 1950s and 1960s concerned with how different cultures classify kinship relationships and the natural environment, and then traces the development of more complex cognitive theories of classification in anthropology that took place in the 1970s and 1980s. Finally, current work involving cultural models, emotion, motivation, and action is considered, along with a cognitive perspective on the nature of culture.
Posted in Psychology

How Things Shape the Mind

Author: Lambros Malafouris

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262019191

Category: Psychology

Page: 304

View: 1008

An account of the different ways in which things have become cognitive extensions of the human body, from prehistory to the present.
Posted in Psychology

The Comparative Approach in Evolutionary Anthropology and Biology

Author: Charles L. Nunn

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226090000

Category: Science

Page: 392

View: 6156

Comparison is fundamental to evolutionary anthropology. When scientists study chimpanzee cognition, for example, they compare chimp performance on cognitive tasks to the performance of human children on the same tasks. And when new fossils are found, such as those of the tiny humans of Flores, scientists compare these remains to other fossils and contemporary humans. Comparison provides a way to draw general inferences about the evolution of traits and therefore has long been the cornerstone of efforts to understand biological and cultural diversity. Individual studies of fossilized remains, living species, or human populations are the essential units of analysis in a comparative study; bringing these elements into a broader comparative framework allows the puzzle pieces to fall into place, creating a means of testing adaptive hypotheses and generating new ones. With this book, Charles L. Nunn intends to ensure that evolutionary anthropologists and organismal biologists have the tools to realize the potential of comparative research. Nunn provides a wide-ranging investigation of the comparative foundations of evolutionary anthropology in past and present research, including studies of animal behavior, biodiversity, linguistic evolution, allometry, and cross-cultural variation. He also points the way to the future, exploring the new phylogeny-based comparative approaches and offering a how-to manual for scientists who wish to incorporate these new methods into their research.
Posted in Science

The Evolution of Mind

Author: Denise D. Cummins,Colin Allen

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780195110531

Category: Psychology

Page: 264

View: 2915

Our understanding of the human mind has radically changed in recent years--from the unified mind once envisioned by Ren� Descartes over three hundred years ago to a new understanding of mind as a set of specialized cognitive components gradually accumulated in our evolutionary past. As a result, many scientists and philosophers now believe that our minds emerged out of the same type of evolutionary processes that have shaped our bodies. In The Evolution of Mind, outstanding figures on the cutting edge of evolutionary psychology follow clues provided by current neuroscientific evidence to illuminate many puzzling questions of human cognitive evolution. With contributions from psychologists, ethologists, anthropologists, and philosophers, the book offers a broad range of approaches to explore the mysteries of the minds evolution--from investigating the biological functions of human cognition to drawing comparisons between human and animal cognitive abilities. This interdisciplinary work presents a comparative and evolutionary perspective on a wide variety of topics, including mental algorithms for reasoning about contingencies, quantities, social norms, and the minds of others; social play and communicative abilities; thought and language, and the role of Darwin's theory of natural selection in evolutionary psychology. Written in a highly readable style, The Evolution of Mind will appeal to a broad range of researchers and students and help set the agenda for the field for years to come.
Posted in Psychology

History and Theory in Anthropology

Author: Alan Barnard

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316101932

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 3020

Anthropology is a discipline very conscious of its history, and Alan Barnard has written a clear, balanced and judicious textbook that surveys the historical contexts of the great debates and traces the genealogies of theories and schools of thought. It also considers the problems involved in assessing these theories. The book covers the precursors of anthropology; evolutionism in all its guises; diffusionism and culture area theories, functionalism and structural-functionalism; action-centred theories; processual and Marxist perspectives; the many faces of relativism, structuralism and post-structuralism; and recent interpretive and postmodernist viewpoints.
Posted in Social Science

Key Concepts in Social Research Methods

Author: Roger Gomm

Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education

ISBN: 1137175176

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 5175

An in-depth glossary, this accessible book successfully introduces students to the key concepts and terms used in social research. Terms are organised alphabetically and fully cross-referenced for use of ease. Suggestions for further reading help to consolidate knowledge and aids understanding.
Posted in Social Science

Advances in Cross-Cultural Decision Making

Author: Sae Schatz,Joseph Cohn,Denise Nicholson

Publisher: AHFE Conference

ISBN: 1495120953

Category:

Page: 273

View: 1484

The Cross-Cultural Decision Making (CCDM) research focuses on improved decision making across a variety of cultural constructs, including geographical, historical, sociological, organizational, team, and technology interactions. This includes the research of experts and industry practitioners from multidisciplinary backgrounds, including sociology, linguistics, human-computer interaction, human factors engineering, systems engineering, military science, psychology, neuroscience, instructional design, and education, who showcase the latest advances in our understanding of the role of culture on decision making in numerous settings. Improved decision making among members of diverse teams and within organizational systems, and innovative ways to measure and assess that process, comprise the foundation for many projects discussed in these volumes. The influence of culture on decision making is pervasive, as reflected in the diverse disciplines represented by those individuals and entities involved in sociocultural research and engineering. This CCDM book features papers that discuss emerging concepts, theories, and applications of cross-cultural decision making knowledge. The work described in these chapters reflects dedicated research by a wide range of expert academics and practitioners from around the world.
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How to Think Like an Anthropologist

Author: Matthew Engelke

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400889529

Category: Social Science

Page: 336

View: 8136

From an award-winning anthropologist, a lively accessible, and at times irreverent introduction to the subject What is anthropology? What can it tell us about the world? Why, in short, does it matter? For well over a century, cultural anthropologists have circled the globe, from Papua New Guinea to suburban England and from China to California, uncovering surprising facts and insights about how humans organize their lives and articulate their values. In the process, anthropology has done more than any other discipline to reveal what culture means--and why it matters. By weaving together examples and theories from around the world, Matthew Engelke provides a lively, accessible, and at times irreverent introduction to anthropology, covering a wide range of classic and contemporary approaches, subjects, and practitioners. Presenting a set of memorable cases, he encourages readers to think deeply about some of the key concepts with which anthropology tries to make sense of the world—from culture and nature to authority and blood. Along the way, he shows why anthropology matters: not only because it helps us understand other cultures and points of view but also because, in the process, it reveals something about ourselves and our own cultures, too.
Posted in Social Science

A Cooperative Species

Human Reciprocity and Its Evolution

Author: Samuel Bowles,Herbert Gintis

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400838837

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 280

View: 9306

Why do humans, uniquely among animals, cooperate in large numbers to advance projects for the common good? Contrary to the conventional wisdom in biology and economics, this generous and civic-minded behavior is widespread and cannot be explained simply by far-sighted self-interest or a desire to help close genealogical kin. In A Cooperative Species, Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis--pioneers in the new experimental and evolutionary science of human behavior--show that the central issue is not why selfish people act generously, but instead how genetic and cultural evolution has produced a species in which substantial numbers make sacrifices to uphold ethical norms and to help even total strangers. The authors describe how, for thousands of generations, cooperation with fellow group members has been essential to survival. Groups that created institutions to protect the civic-minded from exploitation by the selfish flourished and prevailed in conflicts with less cooperative groups. Key to this process was the evolution of social emotions such as shame and guilt, and our capacity to internalize social norms so that acting ethically became a personal goal rather than simply a prudent way to avoid punishment. Using experimental, archaeological, genetic, and ethnographic data to calibrate models of the coevolution of genes and culture as well as prehistoric warfare and other forms of group competition, A Cooperative Species provides a compelling and novel account of how humans came to be moral and cooperative.
Posted in Business & Economics

The Adapted Mind

Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture

Author: Jerome H. Barkow,Leda Cosmides,John Tooby

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0195101073

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page: 666

View: 9884

This book introduces the new field of evolutionary psychology and the complex mechanisms that generate human behavior and culture.
Posted in Foreign Language Study

Human Origins

Contributions from Social Anthropology

Author: Camilla Power,Morna Finnegan,Hilary Callan

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 1785333798

Category: Social Science

Page: 364

View: 6367

Human Origins brings together new thinking by social anthropologists and other scholars on the evolution of human culture and society. No other discipline has more relevant expertise to consider the emergence of humans as the symbolic species. Yet, social anthropologists have been conspicuously absent from debates about the origins of modern humans. These contributions explore why that is, and how social anthropology can shed light on early kinship and economic relations, gender politics, ritual, cosmology, ethnobiology, medicine, and the evolution of language.
Posted in Social Science

How the Bible Works

An Anthropological Study of Evangelical Biblicism

Author: Brian Malley

Publisher: Rowman Altamira

ISBN: 9780759106659

Category: Religion

Page: 173

View: 3112

What do evangelicals believe when they 'believe in the Bible?' Despite hundreds of English versions that differ in their texts, evangelicals continue to believe that there is a stable text 'the Bible' which is the authoritative word of God and an essential guide to their everyday lives. To understand this phenomenon of evangelical Biblicism, anthropologist and biblical scholar Brian Malley looks not to the words of the Bible but to the Bible-believing communities. For as Malley demonstrates, it is less the meaning of the words of the Bible itself than how 'the Bible' provides a proper ground for beliefs that matters to evangelicals. Drawing on recent cognitive and social theory and extensive fieldwork in an evangelical church, Malley's book is an invaluable guide for seminarians, social scientists of religion, or for anyone who wants to understand just how the Bible works for American evangelicals."
Posted in Religion

The Routledge Companion to Contemporary Anthropology

Author: Simon Coleman,Susan B. Hyatt,Ann Kingsolver

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1317590678

Category: Social Science

Page: 530

View: 7576

The Routledge Companion to Contemporary Anthropology is an invaluable guide and major reference source for students and scholars alike, introducing its readers to key contemporary perspectives and approaches within the field. Written by an experienced international team of contributors, with an interdisciplinary range of essays, this collection provides a powerful overview of the transformations currently affecting anthropology. The volume both addresses the concerns of the discipline and comments on its construction through texts, classroom interactions, engagements with various publics, and changing relations with other academic subjects. Persuasively demonstrating that a number of key contemporary issues can be usefully analyzed through an anthropological lens, the contributors cover important topics such as globalization, law and politics, collaborative archaeology, economics, religion, citizenship and community, health, and the environment. The Routledge Companion to Contemporary Anthropology is a fascinating examination of this lively and constantly evolving discipline.
Posted in Social Science

Environmental Anthropology

From Pigs to Policies, Third Edition

Author: Patricia K. Townsend

Publisher: Waveland Press

ISBN: 1478636947

Category: Social Science

Page: 139

View: 2057

Environmental anthropologists organize the realities of interdependent lands, plants, animals, and human beings; advocate for the neediest among them; and provide guidance for conservation efforts. But can anthropologists’ studies of small-scale systems contribute to policies that address profoundly interconnected global problems? Townsend explores this question in her concise introduction to environmental anthropology. While maintaining the structure and clarity of previous editions, the third edition has been thoroughly revised to include new research. Newly added are a chapter on the environmental impact of war and recommended readings and films. Townsend begins with a historical overview of the field, illustrating how earlier ideas and approaches help to understand how today’s populations adapt to their physical and biological environments. She then transitions to a closer look at global environmental issues, including such topics as rapid expansion of the world economic system and inequality, loss of biodiversity and its implications for human health, and injustices of climate change, resource extraction, and toxic waste disposal. The final chapters caution that meaningful change requires social movements and policy changes in addition to individual actions.
Posted in Social Science