Cognitive Anthropology

Its Evolution and Contemporary Relevance

Author: Dessalegn Oulte

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 3640880021

Category:

Page: 28

View: 3736

Scholarly Essay from the year 2011 in the subject Pedagogy - Science, Theory, Anthropology, grade: -, - (paleoenvironment and Heritage conservation), course: Anthropology Tehoery, language: English, abstract: To redefine cogitative anthropology based on the definitions of a range of literature assessed for this paper, it is an idealistic approach, studies the interaction between human thought and human culture. To be specific, it studies how each group of society organize and perceive the physical objects, events, and experiences that make up their world. Cognitive anthropology gives attention how people make sense of reality according to their own indigenous cognitive faculty unlike the anthropologist point of view, known as emic vs. etic theoretical approach. Cognitive anthropology speculates that each culture organizes and understands events material life and ideas to its own standard. Hence, the primary objective of cognitive anthropology is reliably characterizing the underlying logical systems of thought of other people according to criteria, which can be discovered and replicated through analysis (Robertson & Beasley, 2011; Class lecture handout).
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A Companion to Cognitive Anthropology

Author: David B. Kronenfeld,Giovanni Bennardo,Victor C. de Munck,Michael D. Fischer

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111911165X

Category: Psychology

Page: 624

View: 586

"This new companion traces the development of cognitive anthropology from its beginnings in the late 1950s to the present, and evaluates future directions of research in the field. In twenty-nine articles from leading anthropologists, there is an overview of cognitive and cultural structures, insights into how cognition works in everyday life and interacts with culture, and examples of contemporary research. The companion is essential for anyone interested in the questions of how culture shapes cognitive processes"--
Posted in Psychology

The Development of Cognitive Anthropology

Author: Roy G. D'Andrade

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521459761

Category: Psychology

Page: 272

View: 319

In a historical account of the development of cognitive anthropology, Roy D'Andrade examines how cultural knowledge is organized within and between human minds. He begins by examining research carried out in the 1950s and 1960s concerned with how different cultures classify kinship relationships and the natural environment, and then traces the development of more complex cognitive theories of classification in anthropology that took place in the 1970s and 1980s. Finally, current work involving cultural models, emotion, motivation, and action is considered, along with a cognitive perspective on the nature of culture.
Posted in Psychology

Denken wie ein Neandertaler

Author: Thomas Wynn,Frederick L. Coolidge

Publisher: Philipp Von Zabern Verlag Gmbh

ISBN: 9783805346047

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 7468

The Neanderthal was more similar to us modern man than we think, he was not a primitive Caveman. He had his own language and a large, if not even sophisticated vocabulary. Archeological findings show that the Neanderthals were capable of complex technical process and that most of his life he spent in a small family group. The authors Thomas Wynn and Frederick L. Coolidge give a fascinating insight into the real life and culture of the Neanderthal.
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Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit

Author: Yuval Noah Harari

Publisher: DVA

ISBN: 364110498X

Category: History

Page: 528

View: 8060

Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.
Posted in History

Approaches to the Evolution of Language

Social and Cognitive Bases

Author: James R. Hurford,Michael Studdert-Kennedy,Chris Knight

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521639644

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 442

View: 1360

This is one of the first systematic attempts to bring language within the neo-Darwinian framework of modern evolutionary theory, without abandoning the vast gains in phonology and syntax achieved by formal linguistics over the past forty years. The contributors, linguists, psychologists, and paleoanthropologists, address such questions as: what is language as a category of behavior; is it an instrument of thought or of communication; what do individuals know when they know a language; what cognitive, perceptual, and motor capacities must they have to speak, hear, and understand a language? For the past two centuries, scientists have tended to see language function as largely concerned with the exchange of practical information. By contrast, this volume takes as its starting point the view of human intelligence as social, and of language as a device for forming alliances, in exploring the origins of the sound patterns and formal structures that characterize language.
Posted in Language Arts & Disciplines

The Ashgate Research Companion to Theological Anthropology

Author: Joshua R. Farris,Charles Taliaferro

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1472410963

Category: Religion

Page: 404

View: 4919

In recent scholarship there is an emerging interest in the integration of philosophy and theology. Philosophers and theologians address the relationship between body and soul and its implications for theological anthropology. In so doing, philosopher-theologians interact with cognitive science, biological evolution, psychology, and sociology. Reflecting these exciting new developments, The Ashgate Research Companion to Theological Anthropology is a resource for philosophers and theologians, students and scholars, interested in the constructive, critical exploration of a theology of human persons. Throughout this collection of newly authored contributions, key themes are addressed: human agency and grace, the soul, sin and salvation, Christology, glory, feminism, the theology of human nature, and other major themes in theological anthropology in historic as well as contemporary contexts.
Posted in Religion

Human Impacts on Amazonia

The Role of Traditional Ecological Knowledge in Conservation and Development

Author: Darrell A. Posey,Michael J. Balick

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231517351

Category: Science

Page: 392

View: 7730

From the pre-Columbian era to the present, native Amazonians have shaped the land around them, emphasizing utilization, conservation, and sustainability. These priorities stand in stark contrast to colonial and contemporary exploitation of Amazonia by outside interests. With essays from environmental scientists, botanists, and anthropologists, this volume explores the various effects of human development on Amazonia. The contributors argue that by protecting and drawing on local knowledge and values, further environmental ruin can be avoided.
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Culture and Human Development

Author: Jaan Valsiner

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780761956846

Category: Social Science

Page: 319

View: 7381

This major new textbook by Jaan Valsiner focuses on the interface between cultural psychology and developmental psychology. Intended for students from undergraduate level upwards, the book provides a wide-ranging overview of the cultural perspective on human development, with illustrations from pre-natal development to adulthood. A key feature is the broad coverage of theoretical and methodological issues which have relevance to this truly interdisciplinary field of enquiry encompassing developmental psychology, cultural anthropology and comparative sociology. The text is organized into five coherent parts: Part 1: Developmental theory and methodology; Part 2: Analysis of environments for human development Part 3:
Posted in Social Science

The Comparative Approach in Evolutionary Anthropology and Biology

Author: Charles L. Nunn

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226090000

Category: Science

Page: 392

View: 5558

Comparison is fundamental to evolutionary anthropology. When scientists study chimpanzee cognition, for example, they compare chimp performance on cognitive tasks to the performance of human children on the same tasks. And when new fossils are found, such as those of the tiny humans of Flores, scientists compare these remains to other fossils and contemporary humans. Comparison provides a way to draw general inferences about the evolution of traits and therefore has long been the cornerstone of efforts to understand biological and cultural diversity. Individual studies of fossilized remains, living species, or human populations are the essential units of analysis in a comparative study; bringing these elements into a broader comparative framework allows the puzzle pieces to fall into place, creating a means of testing adaptive hypotheses and generating new ones. With this book, Charles L. Nunn intends to ensure that evolutionary anthropologists and organismal biologists have the tools to realize the potential of comparative research. Nunn provides a wide-ranging investigation of the comparative foundations of evolutionary anthropology in past and present research, including studies of animal behavior, biodiversity, linguistic evolution, allometry, and cross-cultural variation. He also points the way to the future, exploring the new phylogeny-based comparative approaches and offering a how-to manual for scientists who wish to incorporate these new methods into their research.
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New Directions in Psychological Anthropology

Author: Theodore Schwartz,Geoffrey M. White,Catherine A. Lutz

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521426091

Category: Psychology

Page: 352

View: 4857

The contributors to this state-of-the-art collection are prominent figures in psychological anthropology, and they write about recent developments in this field. Rooted in psychoanalytic psychology, the early practitioners in the forties and fifties concentrated on studying cross-cultural variation in child rearing practices. While tensions between individual experience and collective meanings are still central to psychological anthropology, alongside fresh versions of the psychoanalytic approaches, other approaches to the study of cognition, emotion, and ethnopsychology have been introduced. Psychological anthropology's present scope includes the psychology of cognition and affect, to which it has made substantial contributions.
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Cognitive Archaeology and Human Evolution

Author: Sophie A. de Beaune,Frederick L. Coolidge,Thomas Wynn

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521769779

Category: Psychology

Page: 185

View: 7243

Cognitive Archaeology and Human Evolution presented new directions in the study of cognitive archaeology. Seeking to understand the conditions that led to the development of a variety of cognitive processes during evolution, it uses evidence from empirical studies and offers theoretical speculations about the evolution of modern thinking as well. The twelve essays, written by an international team of scholars, represent an eclectic array of interests, methods, and theories about evolutionary cognitive archaeology. Collectively, they consider whether the processes in the development of human cognition simply made a better use of anatomical and cerebral structures already in place at the beginning of hominization. They also consider the possibility of an active role of hominoids in their own development and query the impact of hominoid activity in the emergence of new cognitive abilities.
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Competing Models of Linguistic Change

Evolution and Beyond

Author: Ole Nedergaard Thomsen

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9027247943

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 344

View: 5149

The articles of this volume are centered around two competing views on language change originally presented at the 2003 International Conference on Historical Linguistics in the two important plenary papers by Henning Andersen and William Croft. The latter proposes an evolutionary model of language change within a domain-neutral model of a 'generalized analysis of selection', whereas Henning Andersen takes it that cultural phenomena could not possibly be handled, i.e. observed, described, understood, in the same way as natural phenomena. These papers are models of succinct presentation of important theoretical framework. The other papers present and discuss additional models of change, e.g. invisible hand-processes, system-internal models, functional and cognitive models. Most papers do not subscribe to the evolutionary model; instead, they focus on functional factors in the selection and propagation of variants (as opposed to factors of code efficiency), or on cognitive and pragmatic perspectives. Several papers are inspired by the late Eugenio Coseriu and by Henning Andersen's theories on language change. In particular, the volume contains articles proposing interesting grammaticalization studies and extended models of grammaticalization. The clear presentation of important and competing approaches to fundamental questions concerning language change will be of high interest for scholars and students working in the field of diachrony and typology. The languages referred to in the papers include Cantonese, the Chukotko-Kamchatkan languages, Danish, English, Eskimo languages, German, Norwegian, Russian, Spanish, and Swedish.
Posted in Language Arts & Disciplines

Das egoistische Gen

Mit einem Vorwort von Wolfgang Wickler

Author: Richard Dawkins

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3642553915

Category: Science

Page: 489

View: 5583

p”Ein auch heute noch bedeutsamer Klassiker“ Daily Express Sind wir Marionetten unserer Gene? Nach Richard Dawkins ́ vor über 30 Jahren entworfener und heute noch immer provozierender These steuern und dirigieren unsere von Generation zu Generation weitergegebenen Gene uns, um sich selbst zu erhalten. Alle biologischen Organismen dienen somit vor allem dem Überleben und der Unsterblichkeit der Erbanlagen und sind letztlich nur die "Einweg-Behälter" der "egoistischen" Gene. Sind wir Menschen also unserem Gen-Schicksal hilflos ausgeliefert? Dawkins bestreitet dies und macht uns Hoffnung: Seiner Meinung nach sind wir nämlich die einzige Spezies mit der Chance, gegen ihr genetisches Schicksal anzukämpfen.
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Companion Encyclopedia of Anthropology

Humanity, Culture and Social Life

Author: Tim Ingold

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134976534

Category: Social Science

Page: 1166

View: 2650

* Provides a comprehensive survey of contemporary thinking in biological, social and cultural anthropology and establishes the interconnections between these three fields. * Useful cross-references within the text, with full biographical references and suggestions for further reading. * Carefully illustrated with line drawings and photographs. 'The Companion Encyclopedia of Anthropology is a welcome addition to the reference literature. Bringing together authoritative, incisive and scrupulously edited contributions from some three dozen authors. The book achieves an impressive breadth of coverage of specialist areas.' - Times Higher Educational Supplement 'Recommended for all anthropology collections, especially those in academic libraries.' - Library Journal 'This is a marvellous book and I am very happy to recommend it.' - Reference Reviews
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Chrysantheme und Schwert

Formen der japanischen Kultur

Author: Ruth Benedict

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783518120149

Category:

Page: 280

View: 8079

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The Evolutionary Emergence of Language

Social Function and the Origins of Linguistic Form

Author: Chris Knight,Michael Studdert-Kennedy

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521786966

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 426

View: 4696

This book covers the origins of language, combining social and natural science perspectives.
Posted in Language Arts & Disciplines

The Foundations of Cognitive Archaeology

Author: Marc A. Abramiuk

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262017687

Category: Science

Page: 316

View: 2884

An empirically supported proposal for synthesizing multiple approaches to the study of the mind in the past. In The Foundations of Cognitive Archaeology, Marc Abramiuk proposes a multidisciplinary basis for the study of the mind in the past, arguing that archaeology and the cognitive sciences have much to offer one another. Abramiuk draws on relevant topics from philosophy, biological anthropology, cognitive psychology, cognitive anthropology, and archaeology to establish theoretically founded and empirically substantiated principles of a discipline that integrates different approaches to mind-related archaeological research. Abramiuk discusses the two ways that archaeologists have traditionally viewed the human mind: as a universal or as a relative interface with the environment. He argues that neither view by itself can satisfactorily serve as a basis for gleaning insight into all aspects of the mind in the past and, therefore, the mind is more appropriately studied using multiple approaches. He explains the rationale for using these approaches in mind-related archaeological research, reviewing the literature in both cognitive psychology and cognitive anthropology on human memory, perception, and reasoning. Drawing on archaeological and genetic evidence, Abramiuk investigates the evolution of the mind through the Upper Paleolithic era--when the ancient mind became functionally comparable to the modern human mind. Finally, Abramiuk offers a model for the establishment of a discipline dealing with the study of the mind in the past that integrates all the approaches discussed.
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Cognition in Practice

Mind, Mathematics and Culture in Everyday Life

Author: Jean Lave

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107268311

Category: Psychology

Page: N.A

View: 4612

Most previous research on human cognition has focused on problem-solving, and has confined its investigations to the laboratory. As a result, it has been difficult to account for complex mental processes and their place in culture and history. In this startling - indeed, disco in forting - study, Jean Lave moves the analysis of one particular form of cognitive activity, - arithmetic problem-solving - out of the laboratory into the domain of everyday life. In so doing, she shows how mathematics in the 'real world', like all thinking, is shaped by the dynamic encounter between the culturally endowed mind and its total context, a subtle interaction that shapes 1) Both tile human subject and the world within which it acts. The study is focused on mundane daily, activities, such as grocery shopping for 'best buys' in the supermarket, dieting, and so on. Innovative in its method, fascinating in its findings, the research is above all significant in its theoretical contributions. Have offers a cogent critique of conventional cognitive theory, turning for an alternative to recent social theory, and weaving a compelling synthesis from elements of culture theory, theories of practice, and Marxist discourse. The result is a new way of understanding human thought processes, a vision of cognition as the dialectic between persons-acting, and the settings in which their activity is constituted. The book will appeal to anthropologists, for its novel theory of the relation of cognition to culture and context; to cognitive scientists and educational theorists; and to the 'plain folks' who form its subject, and who will recognize themselves in it, a rare accomplishment in the modern social sciences.
Posted in Psychology