Climate Variability and Change in High Elevation Regions: Past, Present & Future

Author: Henry F. Diaz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401512523

Category: Science

Page: 283

View: 949

Glaciers in the Andes are particularly important natural archives of present and past climatic and environmental changes, in significant part because of the N-S trend of this topographic barrier and its influence on the atmospheric circulation of the southern hemisphere. Strong gradients in the seasonality and amount of precipitation exist between the equator and 30° S. Large differences in amount east and west of the Andean divide also occur, as well as a change from tropical summer precipitation (additionally modified by the seasonal shift of the circulation belts) to winter precipitation in the west wind belt (e. g. , Yuille, 1999; Garraud and Aceituno, 2001). The so-called 'dry axis' lies between the tropical and extra tropical precipitation regimes (Figure 1). The high mountain desert within this axis responds most sensitively to the smallest changes in effective moisture. An important hydro-meteorological feature on a seasonal to inter-annual time-scale is the occurrence of EN SO events, which strongly control the mass balance of glaciers in this area (e. g. , Wagnon et ai. , 2001; Francou et ai. , in press). The precipitation pattern is an important factor for the interpretation of climatic and environmental records extracted from ice cores, because much of this information is related to conditions at the actual time of precipitation, and this is especially so for stable isotope records. Several ice cores have recently been drilled to bedrock in this area. From Huascanin (Thompson et ai. , 1995), Sajama (Thompson et ai.
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Climate Variability and Extremes during the Past 100 years

Author: Stefan Brönnimann,Jürg Luterbacher,Tracy Ewen,Henry F. Diaz,Richard S. Stolarski,Urs Neu

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402067662

Category: Science

Page: 364

View: 2449

This volume provides an up to date overview of climate variability during the 20th century in the context of natural and anthropogenic variability. It compiles a number of contributions to a workshop held in Gwatt, Switzerland, in July 2006 dealing with different aspects of climate change, variability, and extremes during the past 100 years. The individual contributions cover a broad range of topics. The volume fills a gap in this exciting field of research.
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Climate of the Romanian Carpathians

Variability and Trends

Author: Dana Magdalena Micu,Alexandru Dumitrescu,Sorin Cheval,Marius-Victor Birsan

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319028863

Category: Science

Page: 213

View: 6014

This book is a comprehensive climatic monograph, which addresses one of the most complex mountain environments in Europe, the Carpathians Chain, focusing on the branches that lie over Romania. The volume aggregates high quality input data, state-of-the-art techniques, regional analysis and overview perspectives, while addressing the spatial and temporal patterns of the main climatic elements. The study covers the period 1961-2010, for the present climate, while the perspective is extended up to 2050. The main climatic elements (e.g. air temperature, precipitation, wind) are analyzed, but some specific variables like snow depth and snow cover are also examined, both in terms of average behaviour and extreme characteristics. This is the first synthesis addressing the climate of this mountain region, and it provides useful information for scientists, mountain stakeholders, decision-makers and general public.
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Dynamics of Climate Change and Water Resources of Northwestern Himalaya

Author: Rajesh Joshi,Kireet Kumar,Lok Man S Palni

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319137433

Category: Science

Page: 204

View: 1122

This book is about the Himalayan ranges as a source of fresh water supply and a perennial store house of ice, snow and permafrost as well as a vast repository of rich biodiversity, in the light of climate change. Special attention is given to the dynamics of snow and glaciers in the northwestern Himalayas, assessment of climate change patterns, and the consequences of changes and flow regime in order to understand the behaviour of climate change in the northwestern Himalayas. The outcome of melting glaciers are pro-glacial lakes. Their increasing size and potential danger of outbursts requires systematic study, particularly where there is the risk of impact on life and property. Furthermore, the changing trend of the hydrological cycle on a regional or local scale is another area of research which calls for the attention of geoscientists. To date there is a scarcity of reliable data meaning that a concerted effort is still required by all parties.
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Climate Change, Glacier Response, and Vegetation Dynamics in the Himalaya

Contributions Toward Future Earth Initiatives

Author: RB Singh,Udo Schickhoff,Suraj Mal

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319289772

Category: Science

Page: 399

View: 8269

This book provides information essential for anyone interested in climate and environmental change of the Himalayan region, including land and resource managers, environmental planners, conservationists, environmentalists, geographers, climatologists, ecologists, and students. The book is unique in its coverage of the current understanding of the science of climate change in the Himalayan mountain system and of the major impacts on physical systems and ecosystems. The book gives an overview of the physical science basis of climate change and explains drivers and processes of glacier and vegetation dynamics. The book covers relevant aspects of accelerated climate change observed in the Himalayan mountain system, and highlights the regional differentiation of climatic changes and associated environmental modifications. The focus is on climate variability and change, and how physical systems and ecosystems respond to climate change impacts. Consequences include impacts on physical systems such as glacier shrinkage, glacial lake outburst floods, altered hydrological characteristics, permafrost warming and thawing, and mass movements on slopes. Climate change is also a powerful stressor on ecosystems and induces range shifts of plant and animal species and alterations in terms of phenology, biomass, plant cover, plant group dominance and species composition. Thus, ecosystem structure and functioning will be strongly affected. The book has an introductory chapter followed by a section on climate change, a section on impacts on glaciers and hydrology, and a section on vegetation dynamics. Each section has several chapters presenting key concepts, major drivers and key processes of environmental change in the Himalayan region from different perspectives. Climate change impacts in the Himalaya have not been studied in much detail, and respective findings were not presented so far in a comprehensive overview. This book summarizes the current knowledge of interactions between climate change and the dynamics of glaciers, hydrology, and vegetation.
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Carbon Inventory Methods

Handbook for Greenhouse Gas Inventory, Carbon Mitigation and Roundwood Production Projects

Author: N.H. Ravindranath,Madelene Ostwald

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402065477

Category: Science

Page: 306

View: 3025

Carbon Inventory Methods Handbook fills the need for a handbook that provides guidelines and methods required for carbon inventory. It provides detailed step-by-step information on sampling procedures, field and laboratory measurements, application of remote sensing and GIS techniques, modeling, and calculation procedures along with sources of data for carbon inventory. The book is driven by a growing need for ‘carbon inventory’ for land use sections such as forests.
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Scattered and Filtered Solar UV Measurements

Author: Alfio V. Parisi,Jeff Sabburg,Michael G. Kimlin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401512469

Category: Science

Page: 197

View: 6584

This textbook provides a comprehensive understanding of the scattered and filtered solar UV environment, the techniques to measure this radiation and the resulting UV exposures to humans. As is well known, the incidence of skin cancer and sun-related eye disorders can be reduced by minimization exposure to UV radiation. The book aims to quantify, understand and provide information on the effects of filtered and scattered UV light.
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Climatic Change at High Elevation Sites

Author: Henry F. Diaz,Martin Beniston,Raymond Bradley

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401589054

Category: Science

Page: 298

View: 9875

This book provides a unique, in-depth view of past, present and potential future climatic change in mountain regions, and in particular on the mechanisms which are responsible for this change. Other books which focus on environmental change in mountains focus more generally on the impacts of this change on mountain systems, rather than on the regional features of climatic change itself. The book enters into a high level of detail concerning results of international investigations which involve specialists from numerous climate-related disciplines. The book can be used in an academic and research context, for advanced graduate and doctoral students, as well as researchers working in various domains of relevance to climatic change issues. The book also has relevance in the context of future activities of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), in terms of providing up-to-date knowledge of fundamental mechanisms and consequences of climatic change in mountain regions.
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Human Adaptability

An Introduction to Ecological Anthropology

Author: Emilio F. Moran

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 446

View: 7590

This is the first text to thoroughly cover nongenetic strategies of human adaptation to a variety of ecosystems. Designed to help students understand the multiple levels at which human populations respond to their surroundings, it is the most complete discussion of environmental, physiological, behavioral, and cultural adaptive strategies available. Among the unique features that make Human Adaptability outstanding as both a textbook and a reference are a complete discussion of the development of ecological anthropology and of relevant research methods; the use of an ecosystem approach with emphasis on arctic, high altitude, arid land, grassland, and tropical rain forest environments; the most extensive bibliography on ecological anthropology published to date, with over 700 references both classic and recent; and a comprehensive glossary of technical terms. In this updated edition, the author also addresses the impact of political economy, global environment change, demography, and health in the study of human ecology.
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Connecting mountain islands and desert seas

biodiversity and management of the Madrean Archipelago II and 5th Conference on Research and Resource Management in the Southwestern Deserts : May 11-15, 2004, Tucson, Arizona

Author: Gerald J. Gottfried,Rocky Mountain Research Station (Fort Collins, Colo.)

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 631

View: 2809

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Journal of Hydrometeorology

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Hydrometeorology

Page: N.A

View: 1343

Posted in Hydrometeorology

Climate Change 2007 - Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability

Working Group II contribution to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC

Author: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521705974

Category: Science

Page: 986

View: 1164

The Climate Change 2007 volumes of the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provide the most comprehensive and balanced assessment of climate change available. This IPCC Working Group II volume brings us completely up-to-date on the vulnerability of socio-economic and natural systems to climate change. Written by the world's leading experts, the IPCC volumes will again prove to be invaluable for researchers, students, and policymakers, and will form the standard reference works for policy decisions for government and industry worldwide.
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Global Change and Mountain Regions

An Overview of Current Knowledge

Author: Uli M. Huber

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402035067

Category: Nature

Page: 650

View: 6802

Enviroment, mountain biodiversity, ecological changes.
Posted in Nature

Wildlife, Fire and Future Climate

A Forest Ecosystem Analysis

Author: Brendan Mackey,David Lindenmayer,Malcolm Gill,Michael McCarthy,Janette Lindesay

Publisher: CSIRO PUBLISHING

ISBN: 0643099859

Category: Science

Page: 196

View: 6060

The conservation of Earth's forest ecosystems is one of the great environmental challenges facing humanity in the 21st century. All of Earth's ecosystems now face the spectre of the accelerated greenhouse effect and rates of change in climatic regimes that have hitherto been unknown. In addition, multiple use forestry – where forests are managed to provide for both a supply of wood and the conservation of biodiversity – can change the floristic composition and vegetation structure of forests with significant implications for wildlife habitat. Wildlife, fire and future climate: a forest ecosystem analysis explores these themes through a landscape-wide study of refugia and future climate in the tall, wet forests of the Central Highlands of Victoria. It represents a model case study for the kind of integrated investigation needed throughout the world in order to deal with the potential response of terrestrial ecological systems to global change. The analyses presented in this book represent one of the few ecosystem studies ever undertaken that has attempted such a complex synthesis of fire, wildlife, vegetation, and climate. Wildlife, fire and future climate: a forest ecosystem analysis is written by an experienced team of leading world experts in fire ecology, modelling, terrain and climate analysis, vegetation and wildlife habitat. Their collaboration on this book represents a unique and exemplary, multi-disciplinary venture.
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Planning Climate and Global Change Research

A Review of the Draft U.S. Climate Change Science Program Strategic Plan

Author: Board on Environmental Change and Society,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309657660

Category: Science

Page: 79

View: 5468

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The Impacts of Climate Variability on Forests

Author: Martin Beniston,John L. Innes

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3540691073

Category: Science

Page: 338

View: 1482

This volume contains a selection of scientific papers which were presented at an international workshop on the impacts of climatic variability held in Wengen, Switzerland, September 1997. For the first time, an assessment is made of the interactions between physical and biological elements of the Earth System on the basis of shifts in extreme climatic conditions, rather than simply changes in mean atmospheric conditions which research has tended to focus on until recently. Natural ecosystems and forests are typical examples of systems which, while constrained within certain ranges of mean climate, can undergo rapid and often irreversible damage in the face of short-lived but intense extreme events.
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