Classical Recursion Theory

The Theory of Functions and Sets of Natural Numbers

Author: P. Odifreddi

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080886596

Category: Computers

Page: 667

View: 9731

1988 marked the first centenary of Recursion Theory, since Dedekind's 1888 paper on the nature of number. Now available in paperback, this book is both a comprehensive reference for the subject and a textbook starting from first principles. Among the subjects covered are: various equivalent approaches to effective computability and their relations with computers and programming languages; a discussion of Church's thesis; a modern solution to Post's problem; global properties of Turing degrees; and a complete algebraic characterization of many-one degrees. Included are a number of applications to logic (in particular Gödel's theorems) and to computer science, for which Recursion Theory provides the theoretical foundation.
Posted in Computers

Classical Recursion Theory

The Theory of Functions and Sets of Natural Numbers

Author: Piergiorgio Odifreddi

Publisher: North Holland

ISBN: N.A

Category: Functions

Page: 668

View: 8439

1988 marked the first centenary of Recursion Theory, since Dedekind's 1888 paper on the nature of number. Now available in paperback, this book is both a comprehensive reference for the subject and a textbook starting from first principles. Among the subjects covered are: various equivalent approaches to effective computability and their relations with computers and programming languages; a discussion of Church's thesis; a modern solution to Post's problem; global properties of Turing degrees; and a complete algebraic characterization of many-one degrees. Included are a number of applications to logic (in particular Godel's theorems) and to computer science, for which Recursion Theory provides the theoretical foundation.
Posted in Functions

Proceedings of the 12th Asian Logic Conference

Author: Rod Downey,Jörg Brendle,Robert Goldblatt,Byunghan Kim

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814449288

Category: Mathematics

Page: 348

View: 9056

The Asian Logic Conference is the most significant logic meeting outside of North America and Europe, and this volume represents work presented at, and arising from the 12th meeting. It collects a number of interesting papers from experts in the field. It covers many areas of logic. Contents:Resolute Sequences in Initial Segment Complexity (G Barmpalias and R G Downey)Approximating Functions and Measuring Distance on a Graph (W Calvert, R Miller and J Chubb Reimann)Carnap and McKinsey: Topics in the Pre-History of Possible-Worlds Semantics (M J Cresswell)Limits to Joining with Generics and Randoms (A R Day and D D Dzhafarov)Freedom & Consistency (M Detlefsen)A van Lambalgen Theorem for Demuth Randomness (D Diamondstone, N Greenberg and D Turetsky)Faithful Representations of Polishable Ideals (S Gao)Further Thoughts on Definability in the Urysohn Sphere (I Goldbring)Simple Completeness Proofs for Some Spatial Logics of the Real Line (I Hodkinson)On a Question of Csima on Computation-Time Domination (X Hua, J Liu and G Wu)A Generalization of Beth Model to Functionals of High Types (F Kachapova)A Computational Framework for the Study of Partition Functions and Graph Polynomials (T Kotek, J A Makowsky and E V Ravve)Relation Algebras and R (T Kowalski)Van Lambalgen's Theorem for Uniformly Relative Schnorr and Computable Randomness (K Miyabe and J Rute)Computational Aspects of the Hyperimmune-Free Degrees (K M Ng, F Stephan, Y Yang and L Yu)Calibrating the Complexity of Δ02 Sets via Their Changes (A Nies)Topological Full Groups of Minimal Subshifts and Just-Infnite Groups (S Thomas)TW-Models for Logic of Knowledge-cum-Belief (S C-M Yang) Readership: Researchers in mathematical logic and algebra, computer scientists in artificial intelligence and fuzzy logic. Keywords:Asian Logic Conference;Logic;Computability;Set Theory;Modal Logic
Posted in Mathematics

Logic from Russell to Church

Author: Dov M. Gabbay,John Woods

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080885470

Category: Mathematics

Page: 1068

View: 364

This volume is number five in the 11-volume Handbook of the History of Logic. It covers the first 50 years of the development of mathematical logic in the 20th century, and concentrates on the achievements of the great names of the period--Russell, Post, Gödel, Tarski, Church, and the like. This was the period in which mathematical logic gave mature expression to its four main parts: set theory, model theory, proof theory and recursion theory. Collectively, this work ranks as one of the greatest achievements of our intellectual history. Written by leading researchers in the field, both this volume and the Handbook as a whole are definitive reference tools for senior undergraduates, graduate students and researchers in the history of logic, the history of philosophy, and any discipline, such as mathematics, computer science, and artificial intelligence, for whom the historical background of his or her work is a salient consideration. • The entire range of modal logic is covered • Serves as a singular contribution to the intellectual history of the 20th century • Contains the latest scholarly discoveries and interpretative insights
Posted in Mathematics

Computability Theory

Author: Rebecca Weber

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 082187392X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 203

View: 2206

What can we compute--even with unlimited resources? Is everything within reach? Or are computations necessarily drastically limited, not just in practice, but theoretically? These questions are at the heart of computability theory. The goal of this book is to give the reader a firm grounding in the fundamentals of computability theory and an overview of currently active areas of research, such as reverse mathematics and algorithmic randomness. Turing machines and partial recursive functions are explored in detail, and vital tools and concepts including coding, uniformity, and diagonalization are described explicitly. From there the material continues with universal machines, the halting problem, parametrization and the recursion theorem, and thence to computability for sets, enumerability, and Turing reduction and degrees. A few more advanced topics round out the book before the chapter on areas of research. The text is designed to be self-contained, with an entire chapter of preliminary material including relations, recursion, induction, and logical and set notation and operators. That background, along with ample explanation, examples, exercises, and suggestions for further reading, make this book ideal for independent study or courses with few prerequisites.
Posted in Mathematics

Turing Computability

Theory and Applications

Author: Robert I. Soare

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642319335

Category: Computers

Page: 263

View: 959

Turing's famous 1936 paper introduced a formal definition of a computing machine, a Turing machine. This model led to both the development of actual computers and to computability theory, the study of what machines can and cannot compute. This book presents classical computability theory from Turing and Post to current results and methods, and their use in studying the information content of algebraic structures, models, and their relation to Peano arithmetic. The author presents the subject as an art to be practiced, and an art in the aesthetic sense of inherent beauty which all mathematicians recognize in their subject. Part I gives a thorough development of the foundations of computability, from the definition of Turing machines up to finite injury priority arguments. Key topics include relative computability, and computably enumerable sets, those which can be effectively listed but not necessarily effectively decided, such as the theorems of Peano arithmetic. Part II includes the study of computably open and closed sets of reals and basis and nonbasis theorems for effectively closed sets. Part III covers minimal Turing degrees. Part IV is an introduction to games and their use in proving theorems. Finally, Part V offers a short history of computability theory. The author has honed the content over decades according to feedback from students, lecturers, and researchers around the world. Most chapters include exercises, and the material is carefully structured according to importance and difficulty. The book is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in computer science and mathematics and researchers engaged with computability and mathematical logic.
Posted in Computers

Principia Mathematica

Author: Alfred North Whitehead,Bertrand Russell

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Logic, Symbolic and mathematical

Page: N.A

View: 7916

Posted in Logic, Symbolic and mathematical

The Bulletin of Symbolic Logic

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Electronic journals

Page: N.A

View: 9722

Posted in Electronic journals

The Theory of Models

Proceedings of the 1963 International Symposium at Berkeley

Author: J.W. Addison,Leon Henkin,Alfred Tarski

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483275345

Category: Mathematics

Page: 510

View: 1541

Studies in Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics: The Theory of Models covers the proceedings of the International Symposium on the Theory of Models, held at the University of California, Berkeley on June 25 to July 11, 1963. The book focuses on works devoted to the foundations of mathematics, generally known as "the theory of models." The selection first discusses the method of alternating chains, semantic construction of Lewis's systems S4 and S5, and continuous model theory. Concerns include ordered model theory, 2-valued model theory, semantics, sequents, axiomatization, formulas, axiomatic approach to hierarchies, alternating chains, and difference hierarchies. The text also ponders on Boolean notions extended to higher dimensions, elementary theories with models without automorphisms, and applications of the notions of forcing and generic sets. The manuscript takes a look at a hypothesis concerning the extension of finite relations and its verification for certain special cases, theories of functors and models, model-theoretic methods in the study of elementary logic, and extensions of relational structures. The text also reviews relatively categorical and normal theories, algebraic theories, categories, and functors, denumerable models of theories with extra predicates, and non-standard models for fragments of number theory. The selection is highly recommended for mathematicians and researchers interested in the theory of models.
Posted in Mathematics

L'Enseignement mathématique

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 4752

Vols. for 1965- include a separately paged section, Bulletin bibliographique.
Posted in Mathematics

The Foundations of Computability Theory

Author: Borut Robič

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3662448084

Category: Computers

Page: 331

View: 9860

This book offers an original and informative view of the development of fundamental concepts of computability theory. The treatment is put into historical context, emphasizing the motivation for ideas as well as their logical and formal development. In Part I the author introduces computability theory, with chapters on the foundational crisis of mathematics in the early twentieth century, and formalism; in Part II he explains classical computability theory, with chapters on the quest for formalization, the Turing Machine, and early successes such as defining incomputable problems, c.e. (computably enumerable) sets, and developing methods for proving incomputability; in Part III he explains relative computability, with chapters on computation with external help, degrees of unsolvability, the Turing hierarchy of unsolvability, the class of degrees of unsolvability, c.e. degrees and the priority method, and the arithmetical hierarchy. This is a gentle introduction from the origins of computability theory up to current research, and it will be of value as a textbook and guide for advanced undergraduate and graduate students and researchers in the domains of computability theory and theoretical computer science.
Posted in Computers

Slicing the Truth

On the Computable and Reverse Mathematics of Combinatorial Principles

Author: Denis R Hirschfeldt

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814612634

Category: Mathematics

Page: 232

View: 5224

This book is a brief and focused introduction to the reverse mathematics and computability theory of combinatorial principles, an area of research which has seen a particular surge of activity in the last few years. It provides an overview of some fundamental ideas and techniques, and enough context to make it possible for students with at least a basic knowledge of computability theory and proof theory to appreciate the exciting advances currently happening in the area, and perhaps make contributions of their own. It adopts a case-study approach, using the study of versions of Ramsey's Theorem (for colorings of tuples of natural numbers) and related principles as illustrations of various aspects of computability theoretic and reverse mathematical analysis. This book contains many exercises and open questions. Contents:Setting Off: An IntroductionGathering Our Tools: Basic Concepts and NotationFinding Our Path: König's Lemma and ComputabilityGauging Our Strength: Reverse MathematicsIn Defense of DisarrayAchieving Consensus: Ramsey's TheoremPreserving Our Power: ConservativityDrawing a Map: Five DiagramsExploring Our Surroundings: The World Below RT22Charging Ahead: Further TopicsLagniappe: A Proof of Liu's Theorem Readership: Graduates and researchers in mathematical logic. Key Features:This book assumes minimal background in mathematical logic and takes the reader all the way to current research in a highly active areaIt is the first detailed introduction to this particular approach to this area of researchThe combination of fully worked out arguments and exercises make this book well suited to self-study by graduate students and other researchers unfamiliar with the areaKeywords:Reverse Mathematics;Computability Theory;Computable Mathematics;Computable Combinatorics
Posted in Mathematics

Mathematics — The Music of Reason

Author: Jean Dieudonne

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540533467

Category: Mathematics

Page: 287

View: 3676

This book is of interest for students of mathematics or of neighboring subjects like physics, engineering, computer science, and also for people who have at least school level mathematics and have kept some interest in it. Also good for younger readers just reaching their final school year of mathematics.
Posted in Mathematics

Classical Mathematical Logic

The Semantic Foundations of Logic

Author: Richard L. Epstein

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400841550

Category: Mathematics

Page: 544

View: 6846

In Classical Mathematical Logic, Richard L. Epstein relates the systems of mathematical logic to their original motivations to formalize reasoning in mathematics. The book also shows how mathematical logic can be used to formalize particular systems of mathematics. It sets out the formalization not only of arithmetic, but also of group theory, field theory, and linear orderings. These lead to the formalization of the real numbers and Euclidean plane geometry. The scope and limitations of modern logic are made clear in these formalizations. The book provides detailed explanations of all proofs and the insights behind the proofs, as well as detailed and nontrivial examples and problems. The book has more than 550 exercises. It can be used in advanced undergraduate or graduate courses and for self-study and reference. Classical Mathematical Logic presents a unified treatment of material that until now has been available only by consulting many different books and research articles, written with various notation systems and axiomatizations.
Posted in Mathematics

Algorithmic Randomness and Complexity

Author: Rodney G. Downey,Denis R. Hirschfeldt

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387684417

Category: Computers

Page: 855

View: 6475

Computability and complexity theory are two central areas of research in theoretical computer science. This book provides a systematic, technical development of "algorithmic randomness" and complexity for scientists from diverse fields.
Posted in Computers

Logicism, Intuitionism, and Formalism

What Has Become of Them?

Author: Sten Lindström,Erik Palmgren,Krister Segerberg,Viggo Stoltenberg-Hansen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402089260

Category: Mathematics

Page: 512

View: 8169

This anthology reviews the programmes in the foundations of mathematics from the classical period and assesses their possible relevance for contemporary philosophy of mathematics. A special section is concerned with constructive mathematics.
Posted in Mathematics

Studies in the Methodology and Foundations of Science

Selected Papers from 1951 to 1969

Author: Patrick Suppes

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 940173173X

Category: Science

Page: 475

View: 5474

The twenty-three papers collected in tbis volume represent an important part of my published work up to the date of this volume. I have not arranged the paper chronologically, but under four main headings. Part I contains five papers on methodology concerned with models and measurement in the sciences. This part also contains the first paper I published, 'A Set of Independent Axioms for Extensive Quantities', in Portugaliae Mathematica in 1951. Part 11 also is concerned with methodology and ineludes six papers on probability and utility. It is not always easy to separate papers on probability and utility from papers on measurement, because of the elose connection between the two subjects, but Artieles 6 and 8, even though they have elose relations to measurement, seem more properly to belong in Part 11, because they are concerned with substantive questions about probability and utility. The last two parts are concerned with the foundations of physics and the foundations of psychology. I have used the term foundations rather than philosophy, because the papers are mainly concerned with specific axiomatic formulations for particular parts of physics or of psychology, and it seems to me that the termfoundations more appropriately describes such constructive axiomatic ventures. Part 111 contains four papers on the foundations of physics. The first paper deals with foundations of special relativity and the last three with the role ofprobability in quantum mechanics.
Posted in Science

Apartness and Uniformity

A Constructive Development

Author: Douglas S. Bridges,Luminiţa Simona Vîţă

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642224156

Category: Computers

Page: 198

View: 1499

The theory presented in this book is developed constructively, is based on a few axioms encapsulating the notion of objects (points and sets) being apart, and encompasses both point-set topology and the theory of uniform spaces. While the classical-logic-based theory of proximity spaces provides some guidance for the theory of apartness, the notion of nearness/proximity does not embody enough algorithmic information for a deep constructive development. The use of constructive (intuitionistic) logic in this book requires much more technical ingenuity than one finds in classical proximity theory -- algorithmic information does not come cheaply -- but it often reveals distinctions that are rendered invisible by classical logic. In the first chapter the authors outline informal constructive logic and set theory, and, briefly, the basic notions and notations for metric and topological spaces. In the second they introduce axioms for a point-set apartness and then explore some of the consequences of those axioms. In particular, they examine a natural topology associated with an apartness space, and relations between various types of continuity of mappings. In the third chapter the authors extend the notion of point-set (pre-)apartness axiomatically to one of (pre-)apartness between subsets of an inhabited set. They then provide axioms for a quasiuniform space, perhaps the most important type of set-set apartness space. Quasiuniform spaces play a major role in the remainder of the chapter, which covers such topics as the connection between uniform and strong continuity (arguably the most technically difficult part of the book), apartness and convergence in function spaces, types of completeness, and neat compactness. Each chapter has a Notes section, in which are found comments on the definitions, results, and proofs, as well as occasional pointers to future work. The book ends with a Postlude that refers to other constructive approaches to topology, with emphasis on the relation between apartness spaces and formal topology. Largely an exposition of the authors' own research, this is the first book dealing with the apartness approach to constructive topology, and is a valuable addition to the literature on constructive mathematics and on topology in computer science. It is aimed at graduate students and advanced researchers in theoretical computer science, mathematics, and logic who are interested in constructive/algorithmic aspects of topology.
Posted in Computers