Cinema Civil Rights

Regulation, Repression, and Race in the Classical Hollywood Era

Author: Ellen C. Scott

Publisher: Rutgers University Press

ISBN: 0813571375

Category: Performing Arts

Page: 268

View: 526

From Al Jolson in blackface to Song of the South, there is a long history of racism in Hollywood film. Yet as early as the 1930s, movie studios carefully vetted their releases, removing racially offensive language like the “N-word.” This censorship did not stem from purely humanitarian concerns, but rather from worries about boycotts from civil rights groups and loss of revenue from African American filmgoers. Cinema Civil Rights presents the untold history of how Black audiences, activists, and lobbyists influenced the representation of race in Hollywood in the decades before the 1960s civil rights era. Employing a nuanced analysis of power, Ellen C. Scott reveals how these representations were shaped by a complex set of negotiations between various individuals and organizations. Rather than simply recounting the perspective of film studios, she calls our attention to a variety of other influential institutions, from protest groups to state censorship boards. Scott demonstrates not only how civil rights debates helped shaped the movies, but also how the movies themselves provided a vital public forum for addressing taboo subjects like interracial sexuality, segregation, and lynching. Emotionally gripping, theoretically sophisticated, and meticulously researched, Cinema Civil Rights presents us with an in-depth look at the film industry’s role in both articulating and censoring the national conversation on race.
Posted in Performing Arts

Making Movies Black

The Hollywood Message Movie from World War II to the Civil Rights Era

Author: Thomas Cripps

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195360349

Category: Social Science

Page: 400

View: 7688

This is the second volume of Thomas Cripps's definitive history of African-Americans in Hollywood. It covers the period from World War II through the civil rights movement of the 1960s, examining this period through the prism of popular culture. Making Movies Black shows how movies anticipated and helped form America's changing ideas about race. Cripps contends that from the liberal rhetoric of the war years--marked as it was by the propaganda catchwords brotherhood and tolerance--came movies that defined a new African-American presence both in film and in American society at large. He argues that the war years, more than any previous era, gave African-American activists access to centers of cultural influence and power in both Washington and Hollywood. Among the results were an expanded black imagery on the screen during the war--in combat movies such as Bataan, Crash Dive, and Sahara; musicals such as Stormy Weather and Cabin in the Sky; and government propaganda films such as The Negro Soldier and Wings for this Man (narrated by Ronald Reagan!). After the war, the ideologies of both black activism and integrationism persisted, resulting in the 'message movie' era of Pinky, Home of the Brave, and No Way Out, a form of racial politics that anticipated the goals of the Civil Rights Movement. Delving into previously inaccessible records of major Hollywood studios, among them Warner Bros., RKO, and 20th Century-Fox, as well as records of the Office of War Information in the National Archives, and records of the NAACP, and interviews with survivors of the era, Cripps reveals the struggle of both lesser known black filmmakers like Carlton Moss and major figures such as Sidney Poitier. More than a narrative history, Making Movies Black reaches beyond the screen itself with sixty photographs, many never before published, which illustrate the mood of the time. Revealing the social impact of the classical Hollywood film, Making Movies Black is the perfect book for those interested in the changing racial climate in post-World War II American life.
Posted in Social Science

Roots Too

Author: Matthew Frye JACOBSON

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674039068

Category: History

Page: 496

View: 2765

In the 1970s, white ethnics mobilized around a new version of the epic tale of plucky immigrants making their way in the New World through the sweat of their brow. Although this turn to ethnicity was for many an individual search for familial and psychological identity, Roots Too establishes a broader white social and political consensus arising in response to the political language of the Civil Rights movement.
Posted in History

Women Activists and Civil Rights Leaders in Auto/Biographical Literature and Films

Author: Delphine Letort,Benaouda Lebdai

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319770810

Category: Performing Arts

Page: 231

View: 9581

This collective book offers new insight on the genres of biography and autobiography by examining the singular path of those deemed to be ‘outsiders’, such as Winnie Mandela, Ida B. Wells, Malcolm X and Harvey Milk. Its specific focus on these female leaders and civil rights activists, who refused to be constrained by gender, race and class, shifts attention away from the great men of history and places it solely on those who have transformed their personal lives into a fight for collective goals. With an interdisciplinary approach that looks at literature, cinema and cultural studies, Women Activists and Civil Rights Leaders in Auto/Biographical Literature and Cinema argues that life writing is a key source of artistic creativity and activism which enables us to take a fresh look at history.
Posted in Performing Arts

American Cinema of the 1960s

Themes and Variations

Author: Barry Keith Grant

Publisher: Rutgers University Press

ISBN: 0813542197

Category: Performing Arts

Page: 275

View: 1445

The profound cultural and political changes of the 1960s brought the United States closer to social revolution than at any other time in the twentieth century. The country fragmented as various challenges to state power were met with increasing and violent resistance. The Cold War heated up and the Vietnam War divided Americans. Civil rights, women's liberation, and gay rights further emerged as significant social issues. Free love was celebrated even as the decade was marked by assassinations, mass murders, and social unrest. At the same time, American cinema underwent radical change as well. The studio system crumbled, and the Production Code was replaced by a new ratings system. Among the challenges faced by the film industry was the dawning shift in theatrical exhibition from urban centers to surburban multiplexes, an increase in runaway productions, the rise of independent producers, and competition from both television and foreign art films. Hollywood movies became more cynical, violent, and sexually explicit, reflecting the changing values of the time. In ten original essays, American Cinema of the 1960s examines a range of films that characterized the decade, including Hollywood movies, documentaries, and independent and experimental films. Among the films discussed are Elmer Gantry, The Apartment, West Side Story, The Manchurian Candidate, To Kill a Mockingbird, Cape Fear, Bonnie and Clyde, 2001: A Space Odyssey, Midnight Cowboy, and Easy Rider.
Posted in Performing Arts

African American Actresses

The Struggle for Visibility, 1900-1960

Author: Charlene B. Regester

Publisher: Indiana University Press

ISBN: 0253221927

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 405

View: 4733

Nine actresses, from Madame Sul-Te-Wan in 'Birth of a Nation' to Ethel Waters in 'Member of the Wedding', are profiled in this book. Regester poses questions about prevailing racial politics, on-screen and off-screen identities, and African American stardom and white stardom.
Posted in Biography & Autobiography

Envisioning Freedom

Cinema and the Building of Modern Black Life

Author: Cara Caddoo

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674966864

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 4472

In Cara Caddoo’s perspective-changing study, African Americans emerge as pioneers of cinema from the 1890s to 1920s. But as it gained popularity, black cinema also became controversial. Black leaders demanded self-representation and an end to cinematic mischaracterizations which, they charged, violated the civil rights of African Americans.
Posted in Social Science

Queering Post-Black Art

Artists Transforming African-American Identity after Civil Rights

Author: Derek Conrad Murray

Publisher: I.B.Tauris

ISBN: 1784532878

Category: Art

Page: 256

View: 1089

What impact do sexual politics and queer identities have on the understanding of 'blackness' as a set of visual, cultural and intellectual concerns? In Queering Post-Black Art, Derek Conrad Murray argues that the rise of female, gay and lesbian artists as legitimate African-American creative voices is essential to the development of black art. He considers iconic works by artists including Glenn Ligon, Kehinde Wiley, Mickalene Thomas and Kalup Linzy, which question whether it is possible for blackness to evade its ideologically over-determined cultural legibility. In their own unique, often satirical way, a new generation of contemporary African American artists represent the ever-evolving sexual and gender politics that have come to define the highly controversial notion of 'post-black' art. First coined in 2001, the term 'post-black' resonated because it articulated the frustrations of young African-American artists around notions of identity and belonging that they perceived to be stifling, reductive and exclusionary. Since then, these artists have begun to conceive an idea of blackness that is beyond marginalization and sexual discrimination.
Posted in Art

Projecting Race

Postwar America, Civil Rights and Documentary Film

Author: Stephen Charbonneau

Publisher: Wallflower Press

ISBN: 9780231178914

Category:

Page: 208

View: 7882

Projecting Race presents a history of educational documentary filmmaking in the postwar era in light of race relations and the fight for civil rights. Drawing on extensive archival research and textual analyses, the volume tracks the evolution of race-based, nontheatrical cinema from its neorealist roots to its incorporation of new documentary techniques intent on recording reality in real time. The films featured include classic documentaries, such as Sidney Meyers's The Quiet One (1948), and a range of familiar and less familiar state-sponsored educational documentaries from George Stoney (Palmour Street, 1950; All My Babies, 1953; and The Man in the Middle, 1966) and the Drew Associates (Another Way, 1967). Final chapters highlight community-development films jointly produced by the National Film Board of Canada and the Office of Economic Opportunity (The Farmersville Project, 1968; The Hartford Project, 1969) in rural and industrial settings. Featuring testimonies from farm workers, activists, and government officials, the films reflect communities in crisis, where organized and politically active racial minorities upended the status quo. Ultimately, this work traces the postwar contours of a liberal racial outlook as government agencies came to grips with profound and inescapable social change.
Posted in

Sociology on Film

Postwar Hollywood's Prestige Commodity

Author: Chris Cagle

Publisher: Rutgers University Press

ISBN: 0813576962

Category: History

Page: 194

View: 8540

After World War II, Hollywood’s “social problem films”—tackling topical issues that included racism, crime, mental illness, and drug abuse—were hits with critics and general moviegoers alike. In an era of film famed for its reliance on pop psychology, these movies were a form of popular sociology, bringing the academic discipline’s concerns to a much broader audience. Sociology on Film examines how the postwar “problem film” translated contemporary policy debates and intellectual discussions into cinematic form in order to become one of the preeminent genres of prestige drama. Chris Cagle chronicles how these movies were often politically fractious, the work of progressive directors and screenwriters who drew scrutiny from the House Un-American Activities Committee. Yet he also proposes that the genre helped to construct an abstract discourse of “society” that served to unify a middlebrow American audience. As he considers the many forms of print media that served to inspire social problem films, including journalism, realist novels, and sociological texts, Cagle also explores their distinctive cinematic aesthetics. Through a close analysis of films like Gentleman’s Agreement, The Lost Weekend, and Intruder in the Dust, he presents a compelling case that the visual style of these films was intimately connected to their more expressly political and sociological aspirations. Sociology on Film demonstrates how the social problem picture both shaped and reflected the middle-class viewer’s national self-image, making a lasting impact on Hollywood’s aesthetic direction.
Posted in History

American Cinema and the Southern Imaginary

Author: Deborah Barker,Kathryn McKee

Publisher: University of Georgia Press

ISBN: 0820337242

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 374

View: 9026

"Placing the New Southern Studies in conversation with film studies, this book is simply the best edited collection available on film and the U.S. South.---Grace Hale. University of Virginia --
Posted in Literary Criticism

Uplift Cinema

The Emergence of African American Film and the Possibility of Black Modernity

Author: Allyson Nadia Field

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780822359074

Category: Performing Arts

Page: 344

View: 4644

Allyson Nadia Field recovers the forgotten body of African American filmmaking from the 1910s which she calls uplift cinema. These films were part of the racial uplift project, which emphasized education, respectability, and self-sufficiency, and weren't only responses to racist representations of African Americans in other films.
Posted in Performing Arts

Black Masculinity and the Cinema of Policing

Author: Jared Sexton

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319661701

Category: Social Science

Page: 199

View: 1285

This book offers a critical survey of film and media representations of black masculinity in the early twenty-first-century United States, between President George W. Bush’s 2001 announcement of the War on Terror and President Barack Obama’s 2009 acceptance of the Nobel Peace Prize. It argues that images of black masculine authority have become increasingly important to the legitimization of contemporary policing and its leading role in the maintenance of an antiblack social order forged by racial slavery and segregation. It examines a constellation of film and television productions—from Antoine Fuqua’s Training Day to John Lee Hancock’s The Blind Side to Barry Jenkin's Moonlight—to illuminate the contradictory dynamics at work in attempts to reconcile the promotion of black male patriarchal empowerment and the preservation of gendered antiblackness within political and popular culture.
Posted in Social Science

Forgeries of Memory and Meaning

Blacks and the Regimes of Race in American Theater and Film before World War II

Author: Cedric J. Robinson

Publisher: UNC Press Books

ISBN: 1469606755

Category: Social Science

Page: 456

View: 3747

Cedric J. Robinson offers a new understanding of race in America through his analysis of theater and film of the early twentieth century. He argues that economic, political, and cultural forces present in the eras of silent film and the early "talkies" firmly entrenched limited representations of African Americans. Robinson grounds his study in contexts that illuminate the parallel growth of racial beliefs and capitalism, beginning with Shakespearean England and the development of international trade. He demonstrates how the needs of American commerce determined the construction of successive racial regimes that were publicized in the theater and in motion pictures, particularly through plantation and jungle films. In addition to providing new depth and complexity to the history of black representation, Robinson examines black resistance to these practices. Whereas D. W. Griffith appropriated black minstrelsy and romanticized a national myth of origins, Robinson argues that Oscar Micheaux transcended uplift films to create explicitly political critiques of the American national myth. Robinson's analysis marks a new way of approaching the intellectual, political, and media racism present in the beginnings of American narrative cinema.
Posted in Social Science

Black American Cinema

Author: Manthia Diawara

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415903974

Category: Fiction

Page: 324

View: 1053

From the pioneering work of Oscar Micheaux and Wallace Thurman to the Hollywood success of Spike Lee, Black American filmmakers have played a remarkable role in the development of the American film, both independent and mainstream. In this volume, the work of early Black filmmakers is given serious attention for the first time. Essays consider what a Black film tradition might be, the relation between Black American filmmakers and filmmakers from the diaspora, the nature of Black film aesthetics, the artist's place within the community, and the representation of a Black imaginary. The collection also discusses Black sexuality on screen, and the role of Black women in independent cinema and as spectators; also, those Black directors who worked for Hollywood and whose films are simplistically dismissed as sell-outs, versus those "crossover" filmmakers whose achievements entail a surreptitious infiltration of the studios.--From publisher description.
Posted in Fiction

Keyframes: Popular Cinema and Cultural Studies

Author: Matthew Tinkcom,Amy Villarejo

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113463157X

Category: Social Science

Page: 416

View: 1340

Keyframes introduces the study of popular cinema of Hollywood and beyond and responds to the transformative effect of cultural studies on film studies. The contributors rethink contemporary film culture using ideas and concerns from feminism, queer theory, 'race' studies, critiques of nationalism, colonialism and post-colonialism, the cultural economies of fandom, spectator theory, and Marxism. Combining a film studies focus on the film industry, production and technology with a cultural studies analysis of consumption and audiences, Keframes demonstrates the breadth of approaches now available for understanding popular cinema. Subjects addressed include: * Studying Ripley and the 'Alien' films * Pedagogy and Political Correctness in Martial Arts cinema * Judy Garland fandom on the net * Stardom and serial fantasies: Thomas Harris's 'Hannibal' * Tom Hanks and the globalization of stars * Queer Bollywood * Jackie Chan and the Black connection * '12 Monkeys', postmodernism and urban space.
Posted in Social Science

The New Yorker Theater and Other Scenes from a Life at the Movies

Author: Toby Talbot

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231145667

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 352

View: 6577

"In this irresistible memoir, Toby Talbot, co-owner and proud "matron" of the New Yorker Theater, reveals the story behind Manhattan's wild and wonderful affair with art-house film. With her husband Dan, Talbot showcased a range of eclectic films, introducing French New Wave and New German cinema, along with other groundbreaking genres and styles. As Vietnam protests and the struggle for civil rights raged outside, the Talbots also took the lead in distributing political films, such as Bernard Bertolucci's Before the Revolution, and documentaries, such as Shoah and Point of Order.".
Posted in Biography & Autobiography

Killing the Black Body

Race, Reproduction, and the Meaning of Liberty

Author: Dorothy Roberts

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 0804152594

Category: Social Science

Page: 384

View: 6966

The image of the “Welfare Queen” still dominates white America’s perceptions of Black women. It is an image that also continues to shape our government’s policies concerning Black women’s reproductive decisions. Proposed legislation to alleviate poverty focuses on plans to deny benefits to children born to welfare mothers and to require insertion of birth control implants as a condition of receiving aid. Meanwhile a booming fertility industry serves primarily infertile white couples. In Killing the Black Body, Northwestern University professor Dorothy Roberts exposes America’s systemic abuse of Black women’s bodies, from slave masters’ economic stake in bonded women’s fertility to government programs that coerced thousands of poor Black women into being sterilized as late as the 1970s. These abuses, Roberts argues, point not only to the degradation of Black motherhood but to the exclusion of Black women’s reproductive needs from the feminist agenda. Groundbreaking, authoritative, and timely, Killing the Black Body is both a powerful legal argument and a valuable aid for teachers, activists, and policy makers in creating a vision of reproductive freedom that respects each and every American.
Posted in Social Science

The Cinema of Isolation

A History of Physical Disability in the Movies

Author: Martin F. Norden

Publisher: Rutgers University Press

ISBN: 9780813521046

Category: Performing Arts

Page: 384

View: 2111

Filmmakers have often encouraged us to regard people with physical disabilities in terms of pity, awe, humor, or fearas "Others" who somehow deserve to be isolated from the rest of society. In this first history of the portrayal of physical disability in the movies, Martin Norden examines hundreds of Hollywood movies (and notable international ones), finds their place within mainstream society, and uncovers the movie industry's practices for maintaining the status quokeeping people with disabilities dependent and "in their place." Norden offers a dazzling array of physically disabled characters who embody or break out of the stereotypes that have both influenced and been symptomatic of societys fluctuating relationship with its physically disabled minority. He shows us "sweet innocents" like Tiny Tim, "obsessive avengers" like Quasimodo, variations on the disabled veteran, and many others. He observes the arrival of a new set of stereotypes tied to the growth of science and technology in the 1970s and 1980s, and underscores movies like My Left Foot and The Waterdance that display a newfound sensitivity. Nordens in-depth knowledge of disability history makes for a particularly intelligent and sensitive approach to this long-overlooked issue in media studies.
Posted in Performing Arts

Sites of Slavery

Citizenship and Racial Democracy in the Post–Civil Rights Imagination

Author: Salamishah Tillet

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822352613

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 224

View: 7221

In Sites of Slavery Salamishah Tillet examines how contemporary African American artists and intellectuals—including Annette Gordon-Reed, Barbara Chase-Riboud, Bill T. Jones, Carrie Mae Weems, and Kara Walker—turn to the subject of slavery in order to understand and challenge the ongoing exclusion of African Americans from the founding narratives of the United States.
Posted in Literary Criticism