The development of the marine chronometer is irrevocably linked to the intense rivalry and war among the British, French, Dutch and Spanish in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries for domination of the seas to protect their trading vessels and expand their empires. Every ship's captain had the same problem: at sea, he could not establish his position within hundreds of miles to the east or west. The best solution seemed to be a clock to calculate how much the Earth had turned and thus accurately to establish longitude. It would have to be as accurate on a pitching and tossing sailing ship as a precision pendulum clock on shore. Each nation offered inducements to inventors. In 1714, the British government put up prizes totalling GBP45,000, worth over GBP2 million today. The sum of GBP20,000 was eventually won by a Yorkshire clockmaking genius, John Harrison, whose first trade was carpentry. Over the years that followed, marine chronometers were developed and produced in large numbers. They are all collectors' items today. For many years, Tony Mercer, grandson of the most enduring English maker, has studied and collected a huge amount of information about these remarkable instruments that enabled explorers and the Royal Navy to map the world, the Navy to police it, and merchant venturers to sail in relative safety. It would not be an exaggeration to say that the chronometer was one of the foundation stones of the British Empire. The purpose of the chronometer is reviewed largely as a navigational aid for ocean-going vessels, but also for survey, medical and other activities calling for precise time measurement. A complete chapter is devoted to John Harrison, rightly described as maker extraordinary, giving a fascinating insight into his herculean efforts to produce a timekeeper that would satisfy all the requirements of the Commissioners of Longitude. Other great makers including John Arnold, Thomas Earnshaw, Le Roy, Berthoud, Frodsham, Dent, Kullberg and Tom Mercer are acknowledged for their evolutionary skills. Representative examples of chronometers and deck watches by international makers - from the earliest known to contemporary instruments - are illustrated in both colour and black and white. A comprehensive list of makers and craftsmen brings together details of men who worked in the industry, their places of work and dates and serial numbers for their instruments. There is also an extensive bibliography.
With Extensive List of Makers and Craftsmen
Author: Tony Mercer
Publisher: N. A. G. Press
Category: Antiques & Collectibles
Author: Johan HORRINS (pseud. [i.e. John Harrison, Grandson of the Chronometer Maker?]),John Harrison
Author: Vaudrey Mercer
Category: Antiques & Collectibles
John Harrison, ein schottischer Uhrmacher, setzte sich ein ehrgeiziges und unmöglich erscheinendes Ziel: eine Methode zu ersinnen, die es Seeleuten ermöglicht, den genauen Längengrad ihrer Position auf See zu bestimmen. Über vierzig Jahre arbeitete Harrison wie besessen an der Herstellung eines perfekten Chronometers und kam schließlich — trotz Missgunst und zahlreicher Anfeindungen — zum Erfolg. Dava Sobels in luzider Prosa erzählte Geschichte dieser wissenschaftlichen Gralssuche wurde ein überwältigender internationaler Erfolg.
Die wahre Geschichte eines einsamen Genies, welches das größte wissenschaftliche Problem seiner Zeit löste
Author: Dava Sobel
Publisher: ebook Berlin Verlag
Category: Biography & Autobiography
During the summers of 1792-94, George Vancouver and the crew of the British naval ships Discovery and Chatham mapped the northwest coast of North America from Baja California to Alaska. Taking the art and technique of distant voyaging to a new level, Vancouver eliminated the possibility of a northwest passage and his remarkably precise surveys completed the outline of the Pacific. But to map an area is to appropriate it � to begin to bring it under control � and Vancouver's charts of the northwest coast were part of a process of economic exploitation and cultural disruption. The chapters in this illuminating book are written from a variety of perspectives and provide new insights on many aspects of Vancouver's voyages, from the technology employed to the complex political and power relationships among European explorers and the Native leadership.
The Pacific World of George Vancouver
Author: Robin Fisher,Hugh Johnston
Publisher: UBC Press
The Edinburgh philosophical journal
Exhibiting a View of the Progressive Discoveries and Improvements in the Sciences and the Arts
With which are Incorporated "the Mechanic", "Scientific Opinion," and the "British and Foreign Mechanic."
Category: Industrial arts
A Religious and Literary Journal
Category: Society of Friends
The 1860 Nautical Magazine includes articles on Japan, the Panama Railroad, the transatlantic cable, the Haj and a solar eclipse.
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Information is power. For more than five hundred years the success or failure of nations has been determined by a country’s ability to acquire knowledge and technical skill and transform them into strength and prosperity. Leading historian Jeremy Black approaches global history from a distinctive perspective, focusing on the relationship between information and society and demonstrating how the understanding and use of information have been the primary factors in the development and character of the modern age. Black suggests that the West’s ascension was a direct result of its institutions and social practices for acquiring, employing, and retaining information and the technology that was ultimately produced. His cogent and well-reasoned analysis looks at cartography and the hardware of communication, armaments and sea power, mercantilism and imperialism, science and astronomy, as well as bureaucracy and the management of information, linking the history of technology with the history of global power while providing important indicators for the future of our world.
How Information and Technology Made the Modern World
Author: Jeremy Black
Publisher: Yale University Press
Edited and richly annotated by Lt Cdr Andrew David, this volume offers for the first time a complete transcript of the handwritten journal kept by William Broughton on his voyage to the North Pacific (1795-1798), together with letters and the journal of his journey across Mexico (1793). Aiming to complete the work left unfinished by Cook's third voyage, Broughton surveyed the coasts of Japan, the Kurile Islands, Sakhalin and Korea, despite being wrecked on an uncharted reef off the Ryukyu Islands in the middle of the mission.
Author: Mr Andrew David
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Author: John Holmes Agnew
A monumental, wholly accessible work of scholarship that retells human history through the story of mankind's relationship with the sea. An accomplishment of both great sweep and illuminating detail, The Sea and Civilization is a stunning work of history that reveals in breathtaking depth how people first came into contact with one another by ocean and river, and how goods, languages, religions, and entire cultures spread across and along the world's waterways. Lincoln Paine takes us back to the origins of long-distance migration by sea with our ancestors' first forays from Africa and Eurasia to Australia and the Americas. He demonstrates the critical role of maritime trade to the civilizations of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, and the Indus Valley. He reacquaints us with the great seafaring cultures of antiquity like those of the Phoenicians and Greeks, as well as those of India, Southeast and East Asia who parlayed their navigational skills, shipbuilding techniques, and commercial acumen to establish vibrant overseas colonies and trade routes in the centuries leading up to the age of European overseas expansion. His narrative traces subsequent developments in commercial and naval shipping through the post-Cold War era. Above all, Paine makes clear how the rise and fall of civilizations can be traced to the sea.
A Maritime History of the World
Author: Lincoln Paine
Publisher: Atlantic Books Ltd