Chandra's Cosmos

Dark Matter, Black Holes, and Other Wonders Revealed by NASA's Premier X-Ray Observatory

Author: Wallace H. Tucker

Publisher: Smithsonian Institution

ISBN: 1588345882

Category: Science

Page: 272

View: 6479

On July 23, 1999, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, the most powerful X-ray telescope ever built, was launched aboard the space shuttle Columbia. Since then, Chandra has given us a view of the universe that is largely hidden from telescopes sensitive only to visible light. In Chandra's Cosmos, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's Chandra science spokesperson Wallace H. Tucker uses a series of short, connected stories to describe the telescope's exploration of the hot, high-energy face of the universe. The book is organized in three parts: "The Big," covering the cosmic web, dark energy, dark matter, and massive clusters of galaxies; "The Bad," exploring neutron stars, stellar black holes, and supermassive black holes; and "The Beautiful," discussing stars, exoplanets, and life. Chandra has imaged the spectacular, glowing remains of exploded stars and taken spectra showing the dispersal of their elements. Chandra has observed the region around the supermassive black hole in the center of our Milky Way and traced the separation of dark matter from normal matter in the collision of galaxies, contributing to both dark matter and dark energy studies. Tucker explores the implications of these observations in an entertaining, informative narrative aimed at space buffs and general readers alike.
Posted in Science

Chandra's Cosmos

Dark Matter, Black Holes, and Other Wonders Revealed by NASA's Premier X-ray Observatory

Author: Wallace H. Tucker

Publisher: Smithsonian Institution

ISBN: 1588345874

Category: Science

Page: 266

View: 5578

On July 23, 1999, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, the most powerful X-ray telescope ever built, was launched aboard the space shuttle Columbia. Since then, Chandra has given us a view of the universe that is largely hidden from telescopes sensitive only to visible light. In Chandra's Cosmos, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's Chandra science spokesperson Wallace H. Tucker uses a series of short, connected stories to describe the telescope's exploration of the hot, high-energy face of the universe. The book is organized in three parts- "The Big," covering the cosmic web, dark energy, dark matter, and massive clusters of galaxies; "The Bad," exploring neutron stars, stellar black holes, and supermassive black holes; and "The Beautiful," discussing stars, exoplanets, and life. Chandra has imaged the spectacular, glowing remains of exploded stars and taken spectra showing the dispersal of their elements. Chandra has observed the region around the supermassive black hole in the center of our Milky Way and traced the separation of dark matter from normal matter in the collision of galaxies, contributing to both dark matter and dark energy studies. Tucker explores the implications of these observations in an entertaining, informative narrative aimed at space buffs and general readers alike.
Posted in Science

Extreme Explosions

Supernovae, Hypernovae, Magnetars, and Other Unusual Cosmic Blasts

Author: David Stevenson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461481368

Category: Science

Page: 369

View: 5959

What happens at the end of the life of massive stars? At one time we thought all these stars followed similar evolutionary paths. However, new discoveries have shown that things are not quite that simple. This book focuses on the extreme –the most intense, brilliant and peculiar– of astronomical explosions. It features highly significant observational finds that push the frontiers of astronomy and astrophysics, particularly as before these objects were only predicted in theory. This book is for those who want the latest information and ideas about the most dramatic and unusual explosions detected by current supernova searches. It examines and explains cataclysmic and unusual events in stellar astrophysics and presents them in a non-mathematical but highly detailed way that non-professionals can understand and enjoy.
Posted in Science

Revealing the Universe

The Making of the Chandra X-ray Observatory

Author: Wallace H. Tucker,Karen Tucker

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 9780674004979

Category: Science

Page: 295

View: 4828

When the first X-ray detectors revealed many places in the universe that are too hot to be seen by optical and radio telescopes, pioneering X-ray astronomers realized they were onto something big. They knew that a large X-ray observatory must be created if they were ever to understand such astonishing phenomena as neutron stars, supernovas, black holes, and dark matter. What they could not know was how monumental in time, money, and effort this undertaking would be. Revealing the Universe tells the story of the Chandra X-ray Observatory. From the first proposal for a large X-ray telescope in 1970 to the deployment of Chandra by the Space Shuttle Columbia in 1999, this book chronicles the technical feats, political struggles, and personal dramas that transformed an inspired vision into the world's supreme X-ray observatory. With an insider's knowledge and a storyteller's instincts, Wallace and Karen Tucker describe the immense challenges that this project posed for such high-tech industry giants as TRW, Eastman Kodak, and Hughes Danbury Optical Systems (now Raytheon Optical Systems). Their portrayal of the role of NASA is itself an extraordinary case study of multibillion-dollar government decisionmaking, and a cautionary tale for future large space astronomy missions.Revealing the Universe is primarily the story of the men and women whose discoveries, skills, failures, and successes made the Chandra X-ray Observatory possible.
Posted in Science

Ripples in Spacetime

Einstein, Gravitational Waves, and the Future of Astronomy

Author: Govert Schilling

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674971663

Category: BIOGRAPHY & AUTOBIOGRAPHY

Page: 340

View: 4170

The detection of gravitational waves—ripples in spacetime—has already been called the scientific coup of this century. Govert Schilling recounts the struggles that threatened to derail the quest and describes the detector’s astounding precision, weaving far-reaching discoveries about the universe into a gripping story of ambition and perseverance.
Posted in BIOGRAPHY & AUTOBIOGRAPHY

The Planet Factory

Exoplanets and the Search for a Second Earth

Author: Elizabeth Tasker

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1472917758

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 8360

Twenty years ago, the search for planets outside the Solar System was a job restricted to science-fiction writers. Now it's one of the fastest-growing fields in astronomy with thousands of exoplanets discovered to date, and the number is rising fast. These new-found worlds are more alien than anything in fiction. Planets larger than Jupiter with years lasting a week; others with two suns lighting their skies, or with no sun at all. Planets with diamond mantles supporting oceans of tar; possible Earth-sized worlds with split hemispheres of perpetual day and night; waterworlds drowning under global oceans and volcanic lava planets awash with seas of magma. The discovery of this diversity is just the beginning. There is a whole galaxy of possibilities. The Planet Factory tells the story of these exoplanets. Each planetary system is different, but in the beginning most if not all young stars are circled by clouds of dust, specks that come together in a violent building project that can form colossal worlds hundreds of times the size of the Earth. The changing orbits of young planets risk dooming any life evolving on neighbouring worlds or, alternatively, can deliver the key ingredients needed to seed its beginnings. Planet formation is one of the greatest construction schemes in the Universe, and it occurred around nearly every star you see. Each results in an alien landscape, but is it possible that one of these could be like our own home world?
Posted in Science

The Cambridge Photographic Atlas of Galaxies

Author: Michael König,Stefan Binnewies

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107189489

Category: Nature

Page: 352

View: 8752

Galaxies - the Milky Way's siblings - offer a surprising variety of forms and colours. Displaying symmetrical spiral arms, glowing red nebulae or diffuse halos, even the image of a galaxy can reveal much about its construction. All galaxies consist of gas, dust and stars, but the effects of gravity, dark matter and the interaction of star formation and stellar explosions all influence their appearances. This volume showcases more than 250 of the most beautiful galaxies within an amateur's reach and uses them to explain current astrophysical research. It features fantastic photographs, unique insights into our knowledge, tips on astrophotography and essential facts and figures based on the latest science. From the Andromeda Galaxy to galaxy clusters and gravitational lenses, the nature of galaxies is revealed through these stunning amateur photographs. This well illustrated reference atlas deserves a place on the bookshelves of astronomical imagers, observers and armchair enthusiasts.
Posted in Nature

Hubble's Universe

Greatest Discoveries and Latest Images

Author: Terence Dickinson

Publisher: Firefly Books

ISBN: 9781770859975

Category: Deep space

Page: 332

View: 6989

"Building on the first edition, this book features 330 high resolution celestial portraits selected by bestselling astronomy writer Terence Dickinson, a four-page fold-out of the Andromeda Galaxy and an illuminating narrative that brings to life Hubble's journey and the fascinating forces at work in the universe."--
Posted in Deep space

Exploring Agriscience

Author: Dr. Ray V. Herren

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 1337515477

Category: Science

Page: 608

View: 4090

Discover the exciting world of agriculture through EXPLORING AGRISCIENCE, Fifth Edition, the resource that continues to inspire and inform middle school students across the nation. The new, updated Fifth Edition of this respected text combines a strong grounding in fundamentals with information on the latest advances in the field and current opportunities in agricultural education programs, such as the national FFA organization. This comprehensive guide will open your eyes to all agriscience has to offer, including soil, plants, and row crops; floriculture, forest science, and landscaping; livestock, dairy, and poultry industries; aquaculture and companion animals; hand tools; small engine operation; and more. In addition, information on topics such as organic agriculture, biofuels, and biotechnology—and an all-new chapter on urban agriculture—introduces you to the trends and developments shaping the industry today, as well as promising initiatives for the future. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
Posted in Science

Gravity's Kiss

The Detection of Gravitational Waves

Author: Harry Collins

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262036185

Category: Science

Page: 416

View: 4873

A fascinating account, written in real time, of the unfolding of a scientific discovery: the first detection of gravitational waves.
Posted in Science

Mars Rover Curiosity

An Inside Account from Curiosity's Chief Engineer

Author: Rob Manning,William L. Simon

Publisher: Smithsonian Institution

ISBN: 1588344746

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 240

View: 7353

The firsthand account of the trials and tribulations of engineering one of the most complex pieces of space technology, the Mars Rover Curiosity, by its chief engineer Rob Manning In the course of our enduring quest for knowledge about ourselves and our universe, we haven't found answers to one of our most fundamental questions: Does life exist anywhere else in the universe? Ten years and billions of dollars in the making, the Mars Rover Curiosity is poised to answer this all-important question. In Mars Rover Curiosity: An Inside Account from Curiosity's Chief Engineer, Rob Manning, the project's chief engineer, tells of bringing the groundbreaking spacecraft to life. Manning and his team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, tasked with designing a lander many times larger and more complex than any before, faced technical setbacks, fights over inadequate resources, and the challenges of leading an army of brilliant, passionate, and often frustrated experts. Manning's fascinating personal account--which includes information from his exclusive interviews with leading Curiosity scientists--is packed with tales of revolutionary feats of science, technology, and engineering. Readers experience firsthand the disappointment at encountering persistent technical problems, the agony of near defeat, the sense of victory at finding innovative solutions to these problems, the sheer terror of staking careers and reputations on a lander that couldn't be tested on Earth, and the rush of triumph at its successful touchdown on Mars on August 5, 2012. This is the story of persistence, dedication, and unrelenting curiosity.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Dark Matter, Dark Energy, Dark Gravity

Enabling a Universe That Supports Intelligent Life

Author: Stephen Perrenod

Publisher: Createspace Independent Pub

ISBN: 9781481284080

Category: Science

Page: 142

View: 1748

Dark Matter, Dark Energy and Dark Gravity make life possible!This book for the lay reader provides a summary of the latest astrophysical observational results and theoretical insights into what we know and what we hope to learn about dark matter, dark energy, and dark gravity.How did the profound beauty of our Earth, our Solar System, our Milky Way galaxy and indeed our universe unfold? Dark matter, dark energy, and dark gravity have made all the difference in how the universe has developed, and have been key to creating the overall environment that makes life possible. We have only recently developed the ability to begin unlocking their secrets, thus providing a deeper insight into how a universe of our type is possible. It seems that because of dark matter, dark energy and dark (weak) gravity, our universe has the right attributes for the development of complex structure and the evolution of intelligent life that can engage in the quest to understand our world. These “dark” or more hidden attributes of the cosmos have very good outcomes.In particular, the existence of dark matter makes it easier to form complex structures, including galaxies, stars and planets through gravitational collapse of denser regions of the universe. Planets are the most suitable abodes for the development of life. Dark energy acts to extend the lifetime of the universe by counteracting gravity and driving continued expansion of the universe.Even as far back as the 1930s there has been evidence that most of the matter in the universe was not visible via electromagnetic radiation (optical light, radio waves, etc.). By the last few decades of the 20th century, the case for a considerable amount of this dark matter was very strong. It is the second largest contributor to the total mass-energy of the universe. We don't know what it is and there are various candidates to explain it; nevertheless we see the gravitational effects of dark matter everywhere on the largest scales. Recent observational results indicate that dark matter dominates by a factor of 6 relative to the ordinary matter that makes up stars, planets, and living things.We now know that the major contributor to the mass-energy of the universe is not the substantial dark matter, but the 'newer' so-called dark energy. Dark energy acts to some extent as a negative gravity, and for the last several billion years has driven the expansion of the universe to a faster and faster pace, overcoming even the gravitational effect of dark matter. We have a general idea that it is the irreducible energy found in every volume of space, even in the absence of matter – in the vacuum. We don't understand why it takes the value that it does, one that is small in quantum particle physics terms, but nevertheless is of great significance on the large cosmological scale of the universe. The third important aspect to consider is not a mass-energy component, but the nature of gravity and space-time. The big question here is – why is gravity so relatively weak, as compared to the other 3 forces of nature? These 3 forces are the electromagnetic force, the strong nuclear force, and the weak nuclear force. Gravity is different – it has a dark or hidden side. It may very well operate in extra dimensions beyond the normal 4 dimensions of space-time that we can observe. This is what we mean in this book by “dark gravity”.
Posted in Science

Bad Astronomy

Misconceptions and Misuses Revealed, from Astrology to the Moon Landing "Hoax"

Author: Philip C. Plait

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471422075

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 7691

Advance praise for Philip Plait s Bad Astronomy "Bad Astronomy is just plain good! Philip Plait clears up every misconception on astronomy and space you never knew you suffered from." --Stephen Maran, Author of Astronomy for Dummies and editor of The Astronomy and Astrophysics Encyclopedia "Thank the cosmos for the bundle of star stuff named Philip Plait, who is the world s leading consumer advocate for quality science in space and on Earth. This important contribution to science will rest firmly on my reference library shelf, ready for easy access the next time an astrologer calls." --Dr. Michael Shermer, Publisher of Skeptic magazine, monthly columnist for Scientific American, and author of The Borderlands of Science "Philip Plait has given us a readable, erudite, informative, useful, and entertaining book. Bad Astronomy is Good Science. Very good science..." --James "The Amazing" Randi, President, James Randi Educational Foundation, and author of An Encyclopedia of Claims, Frauds, and Hoaxes of the Occult and Supernatural "Bad Astronomy is a fun read. Plait is wonderfully witty and educational as he debunks the myths, legends, and 'conspiracies that abound in our society. 'The Truth Is Out There' and it's in this book. I loved it!" --Mike Mullane, Space Shuttle astronaut and author of Do Your Ears Pop in Space?
Posted in Science

Essays on the Frontiers of Modern Astrophysics and Cosmology

Author: Santhosh Mathew

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3319018876

Category: Science

Page: 206

View: 3964

This book is a collection of fourteen essays that describe an inspiring journey through the universe and discusses popular science topics that modern physics and cosmology are struggling to deal with. What is our place in the universe and what happens in the magnificent cosmos where we exist for a brief amount of time. In an unique way that incorporates mythological and philosophical perspectives, the essays in this work address the big questions of what the universe is, how it came into being, and where it may be heading. This exciting adventure is a rich scientific history of elegant physics, mathematics, and cosmology as well as a philosophical and spiritual pursuit fueled by the human imagination.
Posted in Science

Dreams of Other Worlds

The Amazing Story of Unmanned Space Exploration

Author: Chris Impey,Holly Henry

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400881285

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 1964

Dreams of Other Worlds describes the unmanned space missions that have opened new windows on distant worlds. Spanning four decades of dramatic advances in astronomy and planetary science, this book tells the story of eleven iconic exploratory missions and how they have fundamentally transformed our scientific and cultural perspectives on the universe and our place in it. The journey begins with the Viking and Mars Exploration Rover missions to Mars, which paint a startling picture of a planet at the cusp of habitability. It then moves into the realm of the gas giants with the Voyager probes and Cassini's ongoing exploration of the moons of Saturn. The Stardust probe's dramatic round-trip encounter with a comet is brought vividly to life, as are the SOHO and Hipparcos missions to study the Sun and Milky Way. This stunningly illustrated book also explores how our view of the universe has been brought into sharp focus by NASA's great observatories--Spitzer, Chandra, and Hubble--and how the WMAP mission has provided rare glimpses of the dawn of creation. Dreams of Other Worlds reveals how these unmanned exploratory missions have redefined what it means to be the temporary tenants of a small planet in a vast cosmos.
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New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics

Author: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Board on Physics and Astronomy,Committee for a Decadal Survey of Astronomy and Astrophysics

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309186854

Category: Science

Page: 324

View: 9013

Driven by discoveries, and enabled by leaps in technology and imagination, our understanding of the universe has changed dramatically during the course of the last few decades. The fields of astronomy and astrophysics are making new connections to physics, chemistry, biology, and computer science. Based on a broad and comprehensive survey of scientific opportunities, infrastructure, and organization in a national and international context, New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics outlines a plan for ground- and space- based astronomy and astrophysics for the decade of the 2010's. Realizing these scientific opportunities is contingent upon maintaining and strengthening the foundations of the research enterprise including technological development, theory, computation and data handling, laboratory experiments, and human resources. New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics proposes enhancing innovative but moderate-cost programs in space and on the ground that will enable the community to respond rapidly and flexibly to new scientific discoveries. The book recommends beginning construction on survey telescopes in space and on the ground to investigate the nature of dark energy, as well as the next generation of large ground-based giant optical telescopes and a new class of space-based gravitational observatory to observe the merging of distant black holes and precisely test theories of gravity. New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics recommends a balanced and executable program that will support research surrounding the most profound questions about the cosmos. The discoveries ahead will facilitate the search for habitable planets, shed light on dark energy and dark matter, and aid our understanding of the history of the universe and how the earliest stars and galaxies formed. The book is a useful resource for agencies supporting the field of astronomy and astrophysics, the Congressional committees with jurisdiction over those agencies, the scientific community, and the public.
Posted in Science

Assessing the Future Landscape of Scholarly Communication

An Exploration of Faculty Values and Needs in Seven Disciplines

Author: Diane Harley,Sophia Krzys Acord,Sarah Earl-Novell,Shannon Lawrence,C. Judson King

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780615358345

Category:

Page: 736

View: 6754

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Eyes on the Sky

A Spectrum of Telescopes

Author: Francis Graham-Smith

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191053619

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 1320

Four centuries ago, Galileo first turned a telescope to look up at the night sky. His discoveries opened the cosmos, revealing the geometry and dynamics of the solar system. Today's telescopic equipment, stretching over the whole spectrum from visible light to radio and millimetre astronomy, through infrared to ultraviolet, X-rays and gamma rays, has again transformed our understanding of the whole Universe. In this book Francis Graham-Smith explains how this technology can be engaged to give us a more in-depth picture of the nature of the universe. Looking at both ground-based telescopes and telescopes on spacecraft, he analyses their major discoveries, from planets and pulsars to cosmology. Large research teams and massive data handling are necessary, but the excitement of discovery is increasingly shared by a growing public, who can even join in some of the analysis by remote computer techniques. Observational astronomy has become international. All major projects are now partnerships; most notably the Square Kilometre Array, which will involve astronomers from over 100 countries and will physically exist in several of them. Covering the history and development of telescopes from Galileo to the present day, Eyes on the Sky traces what happens when humankind looks up.
Posted in Science

Einstein's Telescope: The Hunt for Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the Universe

Author: Evalyn Gates

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 9780393071337

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 9818

“Splendidly satisfying reading, designed for a nonspecialist audience.”—Kirkus Reviews, starred review Evalyn Gates, a talented astrophysicist, transports readers to the edge of contemporary science to explore the revolutionary tool—”Einstein’s telescope”—that is unlocking the secrets of the Universe. Einstein’s telescope, or gravitational lensing, is so-called for the way gravity causes space to distort and allow massive objects to act like “lenses,” amplifying and distorting the images of objects behind them. By allowing for the detection of mass where no light is found, scientists can map out the distribution of dark matter and come a step closer to teasing out the effects of dark energy on the Universe—which may forever upend long-held notions about where the Universe came from and where it is going.
Posted in Science

The Complete Idiot's Guide to Astronomy

Author: Christopher Gordon De Pree,Alan Axelrod

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 9781592572199

Category: Science

Page: 385

View: 6536

Presents the most recent findings, latest technological advances, and newest theories about the study of the universe.
Posted in Science