Cartographies of Disease: Maps, Mapping, and Medicine, new expanded edition, is a comprehensive survey of the technology of mapping and its relationship to the battle against disease. This look at medical mapping advances the argument that maps are not merely representations of spatial realities but a way of thinking about relationships between viral and bacterial communities, human hosts, and the environments in which diseases flourish. Cartographies of Disease traces the history of medical mapping from its growth in the 19th century during an era of trade and immigration to its renaissance in the 1990s during a new era of globalization. Referencing maps older than John Snow's famous cholera maps of London in the mid-19th century, this survey pulls from the plague maps of the 1600s, while addressing current issues concerning the ability of GIS technology to track diseases worldwide. The original chapters have some minor updating and two new chapters have been added. Chapter 13 attempts to understand how the hundreds of maps of Ebola revealed not simply disease incidence but the way in which the epidemic itself was perceived. Chapter 14, is about the spatiality of the disease and the means by which different cartographic approaches may affect the means by which infectious outbreaks like Ebola can be confronted and contained.
Maps, Mapping, and Medicine
Author: Tom Koch
Publisher: Esri Press
In the seventeenth century, a map of the plague suggested a radical idea—that the disease was carried and spread by humans. In the nineteenth century, maps of cholera cases were used to prove its waterborne nature. More recently, maps charting the swine flu pandemic caused worldwide panic and sent shockwaves through the medical community. In Disease Maps, Tom Koch contends that to understand epidemics and their history we need to think about maps of varying scale, from the individual body to shared symptoms evidenced across cities, nations, and the world. Disease Maps begins with a brief review of epidemic mapping today and a detailed example of its power. Koch then traces the early history of medical cartography, including pandemics such as European plague and yellow fever, and the advancements in anatomy, printing, and world atlases that paved the way for their mapping. Moving on to the scourge of the nineteenth century—cholera—Koch considers the many choleras argued into existence by the maps of the day, including a new perspective on John Snow’s science and legacy. Finally, Koch addresses contemporary outbreaks such as AIDS, cancer, and H1N1, and reaches into the future, toward the coming epidemics. Ultimately, Disease Maps redefines conventional medical history with new surgical precision, revealing that only in maps do patterns emerge that allow disease theories to be proposed, hypotheses tested, and treatments advanced.
Epidemics on the Ground
Author: Tom Koch
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
In the nineteenth century, Americans began to use maps in radically new ways. For the first time, medical men mapped diseases to understand and prevent epidemics, natural scientists mapped climate and rainfall to uncover weather patterns, educators mapped the past to foster national loyalty among students, and Northerners mapped slavery to assess the power of the South. After the Civil War, federal agencies embraced statistical and thematic mapping in order to profile the ethnic, racial, economic, moral, and physical attributes of a reunified nation. By the end of the century, Congress had authorized a national archive of maps, an explicit recognition that old maps were not relics to be discarded but unique records of the nation’s past. All of these experiments involved the realization that maps were not just illustrations of data, but visual tools that were uniquely equipped to convey complex ideas and information. In Mapping the Nation, Susan Schulten charts how maps of epidemic disease, slavery, census statistics, the environment, and the past demonstrated the analytical potential of cartography, and in the process transformed the very meaning of a map. Today, statistical and thematic maps are so ubiquitous that we take for granted that data will be arranged cartographically. Whether for urban planning, public health, marketing, or political strategy, maps have become everyday tools of social organization, governance, and economics. The world we inhabit—saturated with maps and graphic information—grew out of this sea change in spatial thought and representation in the nineteenth century, when Americans learned to see themselves and their nation in new dimensions.
History and Cartography in Nineteenth-Century America
Author: Susan Schulten
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Setting out the debates and reviewing the evidence that links health outcomes with social and physical environments, this new edition of the well-established text offers an accessible overview of the theoretical perspectives, methodologies, and research in the field of health geography Includes international examples, drawn from a broad range of countries, and extensive illustrations Unique in its approach to health geography, as opposed to medical geography New chapters focus on contemporary concerns including neighborhoods and health, ageing, and emerging infectious disease Offers five new case studies and an fresh emphasis on qualitative research approaches Written by two of the leading health geographers in the world, each with extensive experience in research and policy
Author: Anthony C. Gatrell,Susan J. Elliott
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
By studying 17th century maps Kivelson sheds light on Muscovite Russia - the relationship of state and society, the growth of an empire, the rise of serfdom and the place of Orthodox Christianity in society.
The Land and Its Meanings in Seventeenth-century Russia
Author: Valerie Ann Kivelson
Publisher: Cornell University Press
In October 2010, nine months after the massive earthquake that devastated Haiti, a second disaster began to unfold—soon to become the world's largest cholera epidemic in modern times. In a country that had never before reported cholera, the epidemic mysteriously and simultaneously appeared in river communities of central Haiti, eventually triggering nearly 800,000 cases and 9,000 deaths. What had caused the first cases of cholera in Haiti in recorded history? Who or what was the deadly agent of origin? Why did it explode in the agricultural-rich delta of the Artibonite River? When answers were few, rumors spread, causing social and political consequences of their own. Wanting insight, the Haitian government and French embassy requested epidemiological assistance from France. A few weeks into the epidemic, physician and infectious disease specialist Renaud Piarroux arrived in Haiti. In Deadly River, Ralph R. Frerichs tells the story of the epidemic—of a French disease detective determined to trace its origins so that he could help contain the spread and possibly eliminate the disease—and the political intrigue that has made that effort so difficult. The story involves political maneuvering by powerful organizations such as the United Nations and its peacekeeping troops in Haiti, as well as by the World Health Organization and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control. Frerichs explores a quest for scientific truth and dissects a scientific disagreement involving world-renowned cholera experts who find themselves embroiled in intellectual and political turmoil in a poverty-stricken country. Frerichs’s narrative highlights how the world’s wealthy nations, nongovernmental agencies, and international institutions respond when their interests clash with the needs of the world’s most vulnerable people. The story poses big social questions and offers insights not only on how to eliminate cholera in Haiti but also how nations, NGOs, and international organizations such as the UN and CDC deal with catastrophic infectious disease epidemics.
Cholera and Cover-Up in Post-Earthquake Haiti
Author: Ralph R. Frerichs
Publisher: Cornell University Press
In this fascinating history of Cold War cartography, Timothy Barney considers maps as central to the articulation of ideological tensions between American national interests and international aspirations. Barney argues that the borders, scales, projections, and other conventions of maps prescribed and constrained the means by which foreign policy elites, popular audiences, and social activists navigated conflicts between North and South, East and West. Maps also influenced how identities were formed in a world both shrunk by advancing technologies and marked by expanding and shifting geopolitical alliances and fissures. Pointing to the necessity of how politics and values were "spatialized" in recent U.S. history, Barney argues that Cold War–era maps themselves had rhetorical lives that began with their conception and production and played out in their circulation within foreign policy circles and popular media. Reflecting on the ramifications of spatial power during the period, Mapping the Cold War ultimately demonstrates that even in the twenty-first century, American visions of the world--and the maps that account for them--are inescapably rooted in the anxieties of that earlier era.
Cartography and the Framing of America’s International Power
Author: Timothy Barney
Publisher: UNC Press Books
This book provides an essential insight into the practices and ideas of maps and map-making. It draws on a wide range of social theorists, and theorists of maps and cartography, to show how maps and map-making have shaped the spaces in which we live. Going beyond the focus of traditional cartography, the book draws on examples of the use of maps from the sixteenth century to the present, including their role in projects of the national and colonial state, emergent capitalism and the planetary consciousness of the natural sciences. It also considers the use of maps for military purposes, maps that have coded modern conceptions of health, disease and social character, and maps of the transparent human body and the transparent earth.
Cartographic Reason, Mapping and the Geo-Coded World
Author: John Pickles
The product of six years of collaborative research, this fine biography offers new interpretations of a pioneering figure in anesthesiology, epidemiology, medical cartography, and public health. It modifies the conventional rags to riches portrait of John Snow by synthesizing fresh information about his early life from archival research and recent studies. It explores the intellectual roots of his commitments to vegetarianism, temperance, and pure drinking water, first developed when he was a medical apprentice and assistant in the north of England. The authors argue that all of Snow's later contributions are traceable to the medical paradigm he imbibed as a medical student in London and put into practice early in his career as a clinician: that medicine as a science required the incorporation of recent developments in its collateral sciences--chiefly anatomy, chemistry, and physiology--in order to understand the causes of disease. Snow's theoretical breakthroughs in anesthesia were extensions of his experimental research in respiratory physiology and the properties of inhaled gases. Shortly thereafter, his understanding of gas laws led him to reject miasmatic explanations for the spread of cholera, and to develop an alternative theory in consonance with what was then known about chemistry and the physiology of digestion. Using all of Snow's writings, the authors follow him when working in his home laboratory, visiting patients throughout London, attending medical society meetings, and conducting studies during the cholera epidemics of 1849 and 1854. The result is a book that demythologizes some overly heroic views of Snow by providing a fairer measure of his actual contributions. It will have an impact not only on the understanding of the man but also on the history of epidemiology and medical science.
A Life of John Snow
Author: Peter Vinten-Johansen,Howard Brody,Nigel Paneth,Stephen Rachman,Michael Rip,David Zuck
Publisher: Oxford University Press
The preceding decade has seen the production of many cancer at lases. As with other techniques of descriptive epidemiology, these atlases have proved valuable in identifying areas for further re sear~h employing the methods of analytical epidemiology. How ever, the various cancer atlases produceq to date have failed to pro vide a common format of presentation, which has limited their comparability and frustrated in a large measure any attempt to compare risks across national boundaries, boundaries which in terms of environmental exposures may have little meaning. In this volume, many features of cancer atlases are presented and there are discussions on the areas where moves towards standardization could greatly increase the utility of the finished product. In contrast to topographic maps, i. e., representations of natural and man-made features on the surface of the earth, thematic maps concentrate on displaying the geographical occurrence and varia tion of a single phenomenon - the "theme" of the map. The link between thematic and base mapping is rather strong as the themat ic information to be depicted is of greater value if displayed on an accurate base map. Further, the thematic map generally uses statis tical data which are frequently related to internal administrative boundaries for enumeration. The major reason for constructing a thematic map is to discover the spatial structure of the theme of the map and to then relate the structure to some aspects of the under lying environment.
Author: Peter Boyle,Calum S. Muir,Ekkehard Grundmann
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Records the emotional struggles of an elderly father in geriatric decline and his aging son as the care-giver, exploring the issues of their changed relationship
Aging Children and Elderly Parents
Author: Tom Koch
Publisher: Praeger Publishers
Category: Social Science
The fast exchange of information and knowledge are the essential conditions for successful and effective research and practical applications in cartography. For successful research development, it is necessary to follow trends not only in this domain, but also try to adapt new trends and technologies from other areas. Trends in cartography are also quite often topics of many conferences which have the main aim to link research, education and application experts in cartography and GIS&T into one large platform. Such the right place for exchange and sharing of knowledge and skills was also the CARTOCON2014 conference, which took place in Olomouc, Czech Republic, in February 2014 and this book is a compilation of the best and most interesting contributions. The book content consists of four parts. The first part New approaches in map and atlas making collects studies about innovative ways in map production and atlases compilation. Following part of the book Progress in web cartography brings examples and tools for web map presentation. The third part Advanced methods in map use includes achievement of eye-tracking research and users’ issues. The final part Cartography in practice and research is a clear evidence that cartography and maps played the significant role in many geosciences and in many branches of the society. Each individual paper is original and has its place in cartography.
Selected Papers of CARTOCON 2014
Author: Jan Brus,Alena Vondrakova,Vit Vozenilek
An argument against the "lifeboat ethic" of contemporary bioethics that views medicine as a commodity rather than a tradition of care and caring. Bioethics emerged in the 1960s from a conviction that physicians and researchers needed the guidance of philosophers in handling the issues raised by technological advances in medicine. It blossomed as a response to the perceived doctor-knows-best paternalism of the traditional medical ethic and today plays a critical role in health policies and treatment decisions. Bioethics claimed to offer a set of generally applicable, universally accepted guidelines that would simplify complex situations. In Thieves of Virtue, Tom Koch contends that bioethics has failed to deliver on its promises. Instead, he argues, bioethics has promoted a view of medicine as a commodity whose delivery is predicated not on care but on economic efficiency. At the heart of bioethics, Koch writes, is a "lifeboat ethic" that assumes "scarcity" of medical resources is a natural condition rather than the result of prior economic, political, and social choices. The idea of natural scarcity requiring ethical triage signaled a shift in ethical emphasis from patient care and the physician's responsibility for it to neoliberal accountancies and the promotion of research as the preeminent good. The solution to the failure of bioethics is not a new set of simplistic principles. Koch points the way to a transformed medical ethics that is humanist, responsible, and defensible.
When Bioethics Stole Medicine
Author: Tom Koch
Publisher: MIT Press
Explores how medical and social maps helped shape modern perceptions of space.
Author: Pamela K. Gilbert
Publisher: SUNY Press
A maritime disaster that shocked the world. Seventy-one years before the loss of the "Titanic," another ship sank in almost the same spot after striking an iceberg at maximum speed. Three-quarters of the passengers--poor, mostly Irish emigrants--were lost, including at least fourteen who were thrown from a lifeboat to lighten it. Not a single sailor died. When the tragedy of the "William Brown" threatened to expose the dangers of the profitable emigrant passenger trade, a collection of politicians, lawyers, and reporters on both sides of the Atlantic conspired to indict the only seaman who was a hero of the disaster. The trial gave rise to the concept of "lifeboat ethics": how to decide who gets saved when resources are limited. "A fascinating read."--"Chesapeake Bay Magazine" "A gripping tale of the sea. . . . You should make a place for this one on your bookshelf, nautical or otherwise."--"Burgee" "More than a horrifying tale . . . also a penetrating examination of the causes."--Denis Wood, author, "The Power of Maps" "Tom Koch's re-creation of a notorious 19th-century case of shipwreck and murder on the high seas makes absorbing reading."--Michael Phillips, maritime historian, Plymouth (England) Naval Base Museum "Gripping tale of a 19th-century shipwreck that should have been, but wasn't, a catalyst for major shipping reform."--"Quill & Quire" Tom Koch is a widely published writer and journalist and the author of fourteen books. A lifelong sailor, he skippers an aging 35-foot Beneteau sloop throughout the Pacific Northwest.
A True Tale of Overcrowded Lifeboats and Murder at Sea
Author: Tom Koch
Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional
This volume focuses on the internal structure of prepositional phrases, an area that has so far received little attention from the standpoint of cartography. Despite the wide range of data and considerations presented in these essays, the contributors reach a strikingly convergent conclusion: that phrases composed of spatial prepositions, adverbs, and particles do not have different structures, but merely spell out different parts of the same articulated configuration.
Author: Guglielmo Cinque,Luigi Rizzi
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
GIS Tutorial 1 for ArcGIS Pro is an introductory text for leaning ArcGIS in the classroom. Exercises that use ArcGIS Pro, ArcGIS Online and other apps feature the latest technology. Readers will learn how to make maps, how to work with spatial data and how to solve problems with GIS. Incorporating proven teaching methods in detailed exercises, "Your Turn" sections, and expanded homework assignments, this book is suited to learning GIS in a classroom. Wil Gorr and Kristen Kurland have written the top-selling GIS Tutorial 1: Basic Workbook, GIS Tutorial for Health, and GIS for Crime Analysis. Resources for instructors are also available.
Author: Wilpen L. Gorr,Kristen S. Kurland
Publisher: Esri Press
Category: Technology & Engineering
A National Bestseller, a New York Times Notable Book, and an Entertainment Weekly Best Book of the Year From Steven Johnson, the dynamic thinker routinely compared to James Gleick, Dava Sobel, and Malcolm Gladwell, The Ghost Map is a riveting page-turner about a real-life historical hero, Dr. John Snow. It's the summer of 1854, and London is just emerging as one of the first modern cities in the world. But lacking the infrastructure -- garbage removal, clean water, sewers -- necessary to support its rapidly expanding population, the city has become the perfect breeding ground for a terrifying disease no one knows how to cure. As the cholera outbreak takes hold, a physician and a local curate are spurred to action-and ultimately solve the most pressing medical riddle of their time. In a triumph of multidisciplinary thinking, Johnson illuminates the intertwined histories and interconnectedness of the spread of disease, contagion theory, the rise of cities, and the nature of scientific inquiry, offering both a riveting history and a powerful explanation of how it has shaped the world we live in.
The Story of London's Most Terrifying Epidemic--and How It Changed Science, Cities, and the Modern World
Author: Steven Johnson
In Ethics in Everyday Places, ethicist and geographer Tom Koch considers what happens when, as he puts it, "you do everything right but know you've done something wrong." The resulting moral stress and injury, he argues, are pervasive in modern Western society. Koch makes his argument "from the ground up," from the perspective of average persons, and through a revealing series of maps in which issues of ethics and morality are embedded. The book begins with a general grounding in both moral stress and mapping as a means of investigation. The author then examines the ethical dilemmas of mapmakers and others in the popular media and the sciences, including graphic artists, journalists, researchers, and social scientists. Koch expands from the particular to the general, from mapmaker and journalist to the readers of maps and news. He explores the moral stress and injury in educational funding, poverty, and income inequality ("Why aren't we angry that one in eight fellow citizens lives in federally certified poverty?"), transportation modeling (seen in the iconic map of the London transit system and the hidden realities of exclusion), and U.S. graft organ transplantation. This uniquely interdisciplinary work rewrites our understanding of the nature of moral stress, distress and injury, and ethics in modern life. Written accessibly and engagingly, it transforms how we think of ethics -- personal and professional -- amid the often conflicting moral injunctions across modern society. Copublished with Esri Press
Mapping Moral Stress, Distress, and Injury
Author: Tom Koch
Publisher: MIT Press