Atomic Physics: Precise Measurements and Ultracold Matter

Author: Massimo Inguscio,Leonardo Fallani

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191509639

Category: Science

Page: 360

View: 4061

This book illustrates the history of Atomic Physics and shows how its most recent advances allow the possibility of performing precise measurements and achieving an accurate control on the atomic state. Written in an introductory style, this book is addressed to advanced undergraduate and graduate students, as well as to more experienced researchers who need to remain up-to-date with the most recent advances. The book focuses on experimental investigations, illustrating milestone experiments and key experimental techniques, and discusses the results and the challenges of contemporary research. Emphasis is put on the investigations of precision physics: from the determination of fundamental constants of Nature to tests of General Relativity and Quantum Electrodynamics; from the realization of ultra-stable atomic clocks to the precise simulation of condensed matter theories with ultracold gases. The book discusses these topics while tracing the evolution of experimental Atomic Physics from traditional laser spectroscopy to the revolution introduced by laser cooling, which allows the manipulation of atoms at a billionth of a degree above absolute zero and reveals new frontiers of precision in atomic spectroscopy.
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Pushing the Frontiers of Atomic Physics

Proceedings of the XXI International Conference on Atomic Physics

Author: N.A

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814273007

Category: Science

Page: 372

View: 5941

This unique book highlights the state of the art of the booming field of atomic physics in the early 21st century. It contains the majority of the invited papers from an ongoing series of conferences, held every two years, devoted to forefront research and fundamental studies in basic atomic physics, broadly defined. This conference, held at the University of Connecticut in July 2008, is part of a series of conferences, which began in 1968 and had its historical origins in the molecular beam conferences of the I. I. Rabi group. It provides an archival and up-to-date summary of current research on atoms and simple molecules as well as their interactions with each other and with external fields, including degenerate Bose and Fermi quantum gases and interactions involving ultrafast lasers, strong field control of X-ray processes, and nanoscale and mesoscopic quantum systems. The work of three recent Nobel Laureates in atomic physics is included, beginning with a lecture by Eric Cornell on OC When Is a Quantum Gas a Quantum Liquid?OCO. There are also papers by Laureates Steven Chu and Roy Glauber. The volume also contains the IUPAP Young Scientist Prize lecture by Cheng Chin on OC Exploring Universality of Few-Body Physics Based on Ultracold Atoms Near Feshbach ResonancesOCO.
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Atoms and Molecules Interacting with Light

Atomic Physics for the Laser Era

Author: Peter van der Straten,Harold Metcalf

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107090148

Category: Science

Page: 541

View: 2998

Focusing on atom-light interactions and with numerous exercises, this in-depth textbook prepares students for research in a fast-growing field.
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Laser Spectroscopy 2

Experimental Techniques

Author: Wolfgang Demtröder

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3662446413

Category: Science

Page: 757

View: 8779

Keeping abreast of the latest techniques and applications, this new edition of the standard reference and graduate text on laser spectroscopy has been completely revised and expanded. While the general concept is unchanged, the new edition features a broad array of new material, e.g., ultrafast lasers (atto- and femto-second lasers), coherent matter waves, Doppler-free Fourier spectroscopy, interference spectroscopy, quantum optics and gravitational waves and still more applications in chemical analysis, medical diagnostics, and engineering.
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Bose-Einstein Condensation and Superfluidity

Author: Lev. P. Pitaevskii,Sandro Stringari

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019875888X

Category: Bose-Einstein condensation

Page: 512

View: 3953

Ultracold atomic gases is a rapidly developing area of physics that attracts many young researchers around the world. Written by world renowned experts in the field, this book gives a comprehensive overview of exciting developments in Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity from a theoretical perspective. The authors also make sense of key experiments from the past twenty years with a special focus on the physics of ultracold atomic gases. These systems are characterized by a rich variety of features which make them similar to other important systems of condensed matter physics (like superconductors and superfluids). At the same time they exhibit very peculiar properties which are the result of their gaseous nature, the possibility of trapping in a variety of low dimensional and periodical configurations, and of manipulating the two-body interaction. The book presents a systematic theoretical description based on the most successful many-body approaches applied both to bosons and fermions, at equilibrium and out of equilibrium, at zero as well as at finite temperature. Both theorists and experimentalists will benefit from the book, which is mainly addressed to beginners in the field (master students, PhD students, young postdocs), but also to more experienced researchers who can find in the book novel inspirations and motivations as well as new insightful connections. Building on the authors' first book, Bose-Einstein Condensation (Oxford University Press, 2003), this text offers a more systematic description of Fermi gases, quantum mixtures, low dimensional systems and dipolar gases. It also gives further emphasis on the peculiar phenomenon of superfluidity and its key role in many observable properties of these ultracold quantum gases.
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Atom Interferometry

Author: Paul R. Berman

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080527680

Category: Science

Page: 478

View: 7149

The field of atom interferometry has expanded rapidly in recent years, and todays research laboratories are using atom interferometers both as inertial sensors and for precision measurements. Many researchers also use atom interferometry as a means of researching fundamental questions in quantum mechanics. Atom Interferometry contains contributions from theoretical and experimental physicists at the forefront of this rapidly developing field. Editor Paul R. Berman includes an excellent balance of background material and recent experimental results,providing a general overview of atom interferometry and demonstrating the promise that it holds for the future. Includes contributions from many of the research groups that have pioneered this emerging field Discusses and demonstrates new aspects of the wave nature of atoms Explains the many important applications of atom interferometry, from a measurement of the gravitational constant to atom lithography Examines applications of atom interferometry to fundamentally important quantum mechanics problems
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Annual Review of Cold Atoms and Molecules

Author: Claude Cohen-Tannoudji

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814440396

Category: Science

Page: 518

View: 7626

The aim of this book is to present review articles describing the latest theoretical and experimental developments in the field of cold atoms and molecules. Our hope is that this series will promote research by both highlighting recent breakthroughs and by outlining some of the most promising research directions in the field.
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Atom Interferometry

Author: G.M. Tino,M.A. Kasevich

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 161499448X

Category: Science

Page: 808

View: 9121

Since atom interferometers were first realized about 20 years ago, atom interferometry has had many applications in basic and applied science, and has been used to measure gravity acceleration, rotations and fundamental physical quantities with unprecedented precision. Future applications range from tests of general relativity to the development of next-generation inertial navigation systems. This book presents the lectures and notes from the Enrico Fermi school "Atom Interferometry", held in Varenna, Italy, in July 2013. The aim of the school was to cover basic experimental and theoretical aspects and to provide an updated review of current activities in the field as well as main achievements, open issues and future prospects. Topics covered include theoretical background and experimental schemes for atom interferometry; ultracold atoms and atom optics; comparison of atom, light, electron and neutron interferometers and their applications; high precision measurements with atom interferometry and their application to tests of fundamental physics, gravitation, inertial measurements and geophysics; measurement of fundamental constants; interferometry with quantum degenerate gases; matter wave interferometry beyond classical limits; large area interferometers; atom interferometry on chips; and interferometry with molecules. The book will be a valuable source of reference for students, newcomers and experts in the field of atom interferometry.
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Quantum Matter at Ultralow Temperatures

Author: M. Inguscio,W. Ketterle,S. Stringari

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 1614996946

Category: Science

Page: 592

View: 6370

The Enrico Fermi summer school on Quantum Matter at Ultralow Temperatures held on 7-15 July 2014 at Varenna, Italy, featured important frontiers in the field of ultracold atoms. For the last 25 years, this field has undergone dramatic developments, which were chronicled by several Varenna summer schools, in 1991 on Laser Manipulation of Atoms, in 1998 on Bose-Einstein Condensation in Atomic Gases, and in 2006 on Ultra-cold Fermi Gases. The theme of the 2014 school demonstrates that the field has now branched out into many different directions, where the tools and precision of atomic physics are used to realise new quantum systems, or in other words, to quantum-engineer interesting Hamiltonians. The topics of the school identify major new directions: Quantum gases with long range interactions, either due to strong magnetic dipole forces, due to Rydberg excitations, or, for polar molecules, due to electric dipole interactions; quantum gases in lower dimensions; quantum gases with disorder; atoms in optical lattices, now with single-site optical resolution; systems with non-trivial topological properties, e.g. with spin-orbit coupling or in artificial gauge fields; quantum impurity problems (Bose and Fermi polarons); quantum magnetism. Fermi gases with strong interactions, spinor Bose-Einstein condensates and coupled multi-component Bose gases or Bose-Fermi mixtures continue to be active areas. The current status of several of these areas is systematically summarized in this volume.
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The Hydrogen Atom

Precision Physics of Simple Atomic Systems

Author: S.G. Karshenboim,F.S. Pavone,F. Bassani,M. Inguscio,T.W. Hänsch

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3540453954

Category: Science

Page: 296

View: 9410

For more than a century, studies of atomic hydrogen have been a rich source of scientific discoveries. These began with the Balmer series in 1885 and the early quantum theories of the atom, and later included the development of QED and the first successful gauge field theory. Today, hydrogen and its relatives continue to provide new fundamental information, as witnessed by the contributions to this book. The printed volume contains invited reviews on the spectroscopy of hydrogen, muonium, positronium, few-electron ions and exotic atoms, together with related topics such as frequency metrology and the determination of fundamental constants. The accompanying CD contains, in addition to these reviews, a further 40 contributed papers also presented at the conference "Hydrogen Atom 2" held in summer 2000. Finally, to facilitate a historical comparison, the CD also contains the proceedings of the first "Hydrogen Atom" conference of 1988. The book includes a foreword by Norman F. Ramsey.
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Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics

Author: N.A

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 012408110X

Category: Science

Page: 424

View: 8627

Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics publishes reviews of recent developments in a field that is in a state of rapid growth, as new experimental and theoretical techniques are used on many old and new problems. Topics covered include related applied areas, such as atmospheric science, astrophysics, surface physics and laser physics. Articles are written by distinguished experts and contain relevant review material and detailed descriptions of important recent developments. International experts Comprehensive articles New developments
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Atomic Physics

Author: C.J. Foot

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198506953

Category: Science

Page: 331

View: 7910

This book describes atomic physics and the latest advances in this field at a level suitable for fourth year undergraduates. The numerous examples of the modern applications of atomic physics include Bose-Einstein condensation of atoms, matter-wave interferometry and quantum computing with trapped ions.
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Quantum Gases

Finite Temperature and Non-Equilibrium Dynamics

Author: Nick Proukakis

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 1848168128

Category: Science

Page: 554

View: 2672

This volume provides a broad overview of the principal theoretical techniques applied to non-equilibrium and finite temperature quantum gases. Covering Bose-Einstein condensates, degenerate Fermi gases, and the more recently realised exciton-polariton condensates, it fills a gap by linking between different methods with origins in condensed matter physics, quantum field theory, quantum optics, atomic physics, and statistical mechanics.
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Quantum Enigma

Physics Encounters Consciousness

Author: Bruce Rosenblum,Fred Kuttner

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019979295X

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 6268

In trying to understand the atom, physicists built quantum mechanics, the most successful theory in science and the basis of one-third of our economy. They found, to their embarrassment, that with their theory, physics encounters consciousness. Authors Bruce Rosenblum and Fred Kuttner explain all this in non-technical terms with help from some fanciful stories and anecdotes about the theory's developers. They present the quantum mystery honestly, emphasizing what is and what is not speculation. Quantum Enigma's description of the experimental quantum facts, and the quantum theory explaining them, is undisputed. Interpreting what it all means, however, is heatedly controversial. But every interpretation of quantum physics involves consciousness. Rosenblum and Kuttner therefore turn to exploring consciousness itself--and encounter quantum mechanics. Free will and anthropic principles become crucial issues, and the connection of consciousness with the cosmos suggested by some leading quantum cosmologists is mind-blowing. Readers are brought to a boundary where the particular expertise of physicists is no longer the only sure guide. They will find, instead, the facts and hints provided by quantum mechanics and the ability to speculate for themselves. In the few decades since the Bell's theorem experiments established the existence of entanglement (Einstein's "spooky action"), interest in the foundations, and the mysteries, of quantum mechanics has accelerated. In recent years, physicists, philosophers, computer engineers, and even biologists have expanded our realization of the significance of quantum phenomena. This second edition includes such advances. The authors have also drawn on many responses from readers and instructors to improve the clarity of the book's explanations.
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Ultra-cold Fermi Gases

Author: M. Inguscio,W. Ketterle,C. Salomon

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 1607503182

Category: Science

Page: 932

View: 5474

The field of cold atomic gases faced a revolution in 1995 when Bose-Einstein condensation was achieved. Since then, there has been an impressive progress, both experimental and theoretical. The quest for ultra-cold Fermi gases started shortly after the 1995 discovery, and quantum degeneracy in a gas of fermionic atoms was obtained in 1999. The Pauli exclusion principle plays a crucial role in many aspects of ultra-cold Fermi gases, including inhibited interactions with applications to precision measurements, and strong correlations. The path towards strong interactions and pairing of fermions opened up with the discovery in 2003 that molecules formed by fermions near a Feshbach resonance were surprisingly stable against inelastic decay, but featured strong elastic interactions. This remarkable combination was explained by the Pauli exclusion principle and the fact that only inelastic collisions require three fermions to come close to each other. The unexpected stability of strongly interacting fermions and fermion pairs triggered most of the research which was presented at this summer school. It is remarkable foresight (or good luck) that the first steps to organize this summer school were already taken before this discovery. It speaks for the dynamics of the field how dramatically it can change course when new insight is obtained. The contributions in this volume provide a detailed coverage of the experimental techniques for the creation and study of Fermi quantum gases, as well as the theoretical foundation for understanding the properties of these novel systems.
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Many-Body Physics with Ultracold Gases

Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 94, July 2010

Author: Christophe Salomon,Georgy V. Shlyapnikov,Leticia F. Cugliandolo

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019966188X

Category: Science

Page: 345

View: 1893

This book provides authoritative tutorials on the most recent achievements in the field of quantum gases at the interface between atomic physics and quantum optics, condensed matter physics, nuclear and high-energy physics, non-linear physics, and quantum information.
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Optical Magnetometry

Author: Dmitry Budker,Derek F. Jackson Kimball

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107010357

Category: Science

Page: 412

View: 9124

Comprehensive coverage of the principles, technology and diverse applications of optical magnetometry for graduate students and researchers in atomic physics.
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Controlling the Quantum World:

The Science of Atoms, Molecules, and Photons

Author: Board on Physics and Astronomy,Committee on AMO2010,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309102707

Category: Science

Page: 244

View: 4516

As part of the Physics 2010 decadal survey project, the Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation requested that the National Research Council assess the opportunities, over roughly the next decade, in atomic, molecular, and optical (AMO) science and technology. In particular, the National Research Council was asked to cover the state of AMO science, emphasizing recent accomplishments and identifying new and compelling scientific questions. Controlling the Quantum World, discusses both the roles and challenges for AMO science in instrumentation; scientific research near absolute zero; development of extremely intense x-ray and laser sources; exploration and control of molecular processes; photonics at the nanoscale level; and development of quantum information technology. This book also offers an assessment of and recommendations about critical issues concerning maintaining U.S. leadership in AMO science and technology.
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Cold Molecules

Theory, Experiment, Applications

Author: Roman Krems,Bretislav Friedrich,William C Stwalley

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420059045

Category: Science

Page: 753

View: 5966

The First Book on Ultracold Molecules Cold molecules offer intriguing properties on which new operational principles can be based (e.g., quantum computing) or that may allow researchers to study a qualitatively new behavior of matter (e.g., Bose-Einstein condensates structured by the electric dipole interaction). This interdisciplinary book discusses novel methods to create and confine molecules at temperatures near absolute zero (1 microKelvin to 1 Kelvin) and surveys the research done with and on cold molecules to date. It is evident that this research has irreversibly changed atomic, molecular, and optical physics and quantum information science. Its impact on condensed-matter physics, astrophysics, and physical chemistry is becoming apparent as well. This monograph provides seasoned researchers as well as students entering the field with a valuable companion, one which, in addition, will help to foster their identity within their institutions and the physics and chemistry communities at large. Features a foreword by Nobel Laureate Dudley Herschbach
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