Atomic Physics: Precise Measurements and Ultracold Matter

Author: Massimo Inguscio,Leonardo Fallani

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191509639

Category: Science

Page: 360

View: 1876

This book illustrates the history of Atomic Physics and shows how its most recent advances allow the possibility of performing precise measurements and achieving an accurate control on the atomic state. Written in an introductory style, this book is addressed to advanced undergraduate and graduate students, as well as to more experienced researchers who need to remain up-to-date with the most recent advances. The book focuses on experimental investigations, illustrating milestone experiments and key experimental techniques, and discusses the results and the challenges of contemporary research. Emphasis is put on the investigations of precision physics: from the determination of fundamental constants of Nature to tests of General Relativity and Quantum Electrodynamics; from the realization of ultra-stable atomic clocks to the precise simulation of condensed matter theories with ultracold gases. The book discusses these topics while tracing the evolution of experimental Atomic Physics from traditional laser spectroscopy to the revolution introduced by laser cooling, which allows the manipulation of atoms at a billionth of a degree above absolute zero and reveals new frontiers of precision in atomic spectroscopy.
Posted in Science

Laser Spectroscopy 2

Experimental Techniques

Author: Wolfgang Demtröder

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3662446413

Category: Science

Page: 757

View: 1105

Keeping abreast of the latest techniques and applications, this new edition of the standard reference and graduate text on laser spectroscopy has been completely revised and expanded. While the general concept is unchanged, the new edition features a broad array of new material, e.g., ultrafast lasers (atto- and femto-second lasers), coherent matter waves, Doppler-free Fourier spectroscopy, interference spectroscopy, quantum optics and gravitational waves and still more applications in chemical analysis, medical diagnostics, and engineering.
Posted in Science

Bose-Einstein Condensation and Superfluidity

Author: Lev. P. Pitaevskii,Sandro Stringari

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019875888X

Category: Bose-Einstein condensation

Page: 512

View: 5400

Ultracold atomic gases is a rapidly developing area of physics that attracts many young researchers around the world. Written by world renowned experts in the field, this book gives a comprehensive overview of exciting developments in Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity from a theoretical perspective. The authors also make sense of key experiments from the past twenty years with a special focus on the physics of ultracold atomic gases. These systems are characterized by a rich variety of features which make them similar to other important systems of condensed matter physics (like superconductors and superfluids). At the same time they exhibit very peculiar properties which are the result of their gaseous nature, the possibility of trapping in a variety of low dimensional and periodical configurations, and of manipulating the two-body interaction. The book presents a systematic theoretical description based on the most successful many-body approaches applied both to bosons and fermions, at equilibrium and out of equilibrium, at zero as well as at finite temperature. Both theorists and experimentalists will benefit from the book, which is mainly addressed to beginners in the field (master students, PhD students, young postdocs), but also to more experienced researchers who can find in the book novel inspirations and motivations as well as new insightful connections. Building on the authors' first book, Bose-Einstein Condensation (Oxford University Press, 2003), this text offers a more systematic description of Fermi gases, quantum mixtures, low dimensional systems and dipolar gases. It also gives further emphasis on the peculiar phenomenon of superfluidity and its key role in many observable properties of these ultracold quantum gases.
Posted in Bose-Einstein condensation

Pushing the Frontiers of Atomic Physics

Proceedings of the XXI International Conference on Atomic Physics

Author: N.A

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814273007

Category: Science

Page: 372

View: 3112

This unique book highlights the state of the art of the booming field of atomic physics in the early 21st century. It contains the majority of the invited papers from an ongoing series of conferences, held every two years, devoted to forefront research and fundamental studies in basic atomic physics, broadly defined. This conference, held at the University of Connecticut in July 2008, is part of a series of conferences, which began in 1968 and had its historical origins in the molecular beam conferences of the I. I. Rabi group. It provides an archival and up-to-date summary of current research on atoms and simple molecules as well as their interactions with each other and with external fields, including degenerate Bose and Fermi quantum gases and interactions involving ultrafast lasers, strong field control of X-ray processes, and nanoscale and mesoscopic quantum systems. The work of three recent Nobel Laureates in atomic physics is included, beginning with a lecture by Eric Cornell on OC When Is a Quantum Gas a Quantum Liquid?OCO. There are also papers by Laureates Steven Chu and Roy Glauber. The volume also contains the IUPAP Young Scientist Prize lecture by Cheng Chin on OC Exploring Universality of Few-Body Physics Based on Ultracold Atoms Near Feshbach ResonancesOCO.
Posted in Science

Tipps zur Physik

Eine Ergänzung

Author: Richard P. Feynman,Michael A. Gottlieb,Ralph Leighton

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 311039684X

Category: Science

Page: 180

View: 8592

This supplemental volume contains lectures long thought lost, which Richard Feynman used to prepare his students for their examination.
Posted in Science

Cold and Ultracold Collisions in Quantum Microscopic and Mesoscopic Systems

Author: John Weiner

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139439497

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 5246

Cold and ultracold collisions occupy a strategic position at the intersection of several powerful themes of current research in chemical physics, in atomic, molecular and optical physics, and even in condensed matter. The nature of these collisions has important consequences for optical manipulation of inelastic and reactive processes, precision measurement of molecular and atomic properties, matter–wave coherences and quantum-statistical condensates of dilute, weakly interacting atoms. This crucial position explains the wide interest and explosive growth of the field since its inception in 1987. The author reviews elements of the quantum theory of scattering theory, collisions taking place in the presence of one or more light fields, and collisions in the dark, below the photon recoil limit imposed by the presence of any light field. Finally, it reviews the essential properties of these mesoscopic quantum systems and describes the key importance of the scattering length to condensate stability.
Posted in Science

Atom Optics and Space Physics

Proceedings of the International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi", Course CLXVIII, Varenna on Lake Como, Villa Monastero, 3-13 July 2007

Author: E. Arimondo,W. Ertmer,Wolfgang Schleich,E. M. Rasel

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 1586039903

Category: Science

Page: 482

View: 1205

attention from different communities of physics." --Book Jacket.
Posted in Science

Atom Interferometry

Author: G.M. Tino,M.A. Kasevich

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 161499448X

Category: Science

Page: 808

View: 8168

Since atom interferometers were first realized about 20 years ago, atom interferometry has had many applications in basic and applied science, and has been used to measure gravity acceleration, rotations and fundamental physical quantities with unprecedented precision. Future applications range from tests of general relativity to the development of next-generation inertial navigation systems. This book presents the lectures and notes from the Enrico Fermi school "Atom Interferometry", held in Varenna, Italy, in July 2013. The aim of the school was to cover basic experimental and theoretical aspects and to provide an updated review of current activities in the field as well as main achievements, open issues and future prospects. Topics covered include theoretical background and experimental schemes for atom interferometry; ultracold atoms and atom optics; comparison of atom, light, electron and neutron interferometers and their applications; high precision measurements with atom interferometry and their application to tests of fundamental physics, gravitation, inertial measurements and geophysics; measurement of fundamental constants; interferometry with quantum degenerate gases; matter wave interferometry beyond classical limits; large area interferometers; atom interferometry on chips; and interferometry with molecules. The book will be a valuable source of reference for students, newcomers and experts in the field of atom interferometry.
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Many-Body Physics with Ultracold Gases

Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 94, July 2010

Author: Christophe Salomon,Georgy V. Shlyapnikov,Leticia F. Cugliandolo

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019966188X

Category: Science

Page: 345

View: 5174

This book provides authoritative tutorials on the most recent achievements in the field of quantum gases at the interface between atomic physics and quantum optics, condensed matter physics, nuclear and high-energy physics, non-linear physics, and quantum information.
Posted in Science

The Hydrogen Atom

Precision Physics of Simple Atomic Systems

Author: S.G. Karshenboim,F.S. Pavone,F. Bassani,M. Inguscio,T.W. Hänsch

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3540453954

Category: Science

Page: 296

View: 2883

For more than a century, studies of atomic hydrogen have been a rich source of scientific discoveries. These began with the Balmer series in 1885 and the early quantum theories of the atom, and later included the development of QED and the first successful gauge field theory. Today, hydrogen and its relatives continue to provide new fundamental information, as witnessed by the contributions to this book. The printed volume contains invited reviews on the spectroscopy of hydrogen, muonium, positronium, few-electron ions and exotic atoms, together with related topics such as frequency metrology and the determination of fundamental constants. The accompanying CD contains, in addition to these reviews, a further 40 contributed papers also presented at the conference "Hydrogen Atom 2" held in summer 2000. Finally, to facilitate a historical comparison, the CD also contains the proceedings of the first "Hydrogen Atom" conference of 1988. The book includes a foreword by Norman F. Ramsey.
Posted in Science

High Precision Optical Spectroscopy and Quantum State Selected Photodissociation of Ultracold 88Sr2 Molecules in an Optical Lattice

Author: Mickey McDonald

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319687352

Category: Science

Page: 183

View: 1075

This thesis unites the fields of optical atomic clocks and ultracold molecular science, laying the foundation for optical molecular measurements of unprecedented precision. Building upon optical manipulation techniques developed by the atomic clock community, this work delves into attaining surgical control of molecular quantum states. The thesis develops two experimental observables that one can measure with optical-lattice-trapped ultracold molecules: extremely narrow optical spectra, and angular distributions of photofragments that are ejected when the diatomic molecules are dissociated by laser light pulses. The former allows molecular spectroscopy approaching the level of atomic clocks, leading into molecular metrology and tests of fundamental physics. The latter opens the field of ultracold chemistry through observation of quantum effects such as matter-wave interference of photofragments and tunneling through reaction barriers. The thesis also describes a discovery of a new method of thermometry that can be used near absolute zero temperatures for particles lacking cycling transitions, solving a long-standing experimental problem in atomic and molecular physics.
Posted in Science

Antimaterie

Author: Frank Close

Publisher: Spektrum Akademischer Verlag

ISBN: 9783827425317

Category: Science

Page: 228

View: 2136

Genesis Im Anfang w ar Leere: „Finsternis lag über der Ur ut“. Dann kam es zu einem gewaltigen Energieausbruch: „Es werde Licht. Und es wurde Licht.“ Woher diese Energie kam, weiß ich nicht. Bekannt ist jedoc h, was anschließend geschah: Die Energie kondensierte zu Materie und ihrem geheimn- vollen Spiegelbild – der Antimaterie – in vollkommen gl- chen Mengen. Gewöhnliche Materie ist uns vertraut; aus ihr bestehen Luft und Erde und die Lebewesen. Doch ihr getreues, in allen Erscheinungen identisches Spiegelbild, das erst im Inneren der Atome seine „verkehrte“ Natur offenbart, ist uns mehr als fremd. Es ist die Antimaterie, die Antithese zur Materie. Antimaterie gibt es heute nicht in größeren Mengen, zumindest nicht auf der Erde. Der Grund für ihr V- schwinden gehört zu den unerklärten Geheimnissen des Universums. Wir wissen aber, dass Antimaterie existiert, denn sie konnte in physikalischen Experimenten in win- gen Mengen hergestellt werden. Antimaterie zerstört jede gewöhnliche Materie, mit der sie in Berührung kommt, in einem grellen Blitz. Die seit XII Vorwort Milliarden von Jahren gebündelte Energie der Materie wird in einem solchen Augenblick explosionsartig frei- setzt. Antimaterie könnte die ideale Energiequelle werden, die Technologie des 21. Jahrhunderts. Doch ihre Fähigkeit zur absoluten Zerstörung könnte sie auch zu einer ulti- tiven Massenvernichtungswaffe machen.
Posted in Science

From Atom Optics to Quantum Simulation

Interacting Bosons and Fermions in Three-Dimensional Optical Lattice Potentials

Author: Sebastian Will

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642336337

Category: Science

Page: 258

View: 2259

This thesis explores ultracold quantum gases of bosonic and fermionic atoms in optical lattices. The highly controllable experimental setting discussed in this work, has opened the door to new insights into static and dynamical properties of ultracold quantum matter. One of the highlights reported here is the development and application of a novel time-resolved spectroscopy technique for quantum many-body systems. By following the dynamical evolution of a many-body system after a quantum quench, the author shows how the important energy scales of the underlying Hamiltonian can be measured with high precision. This achievement, its application, and many other exciting results make this thesis of interest to a broad audience ranging from quantum optics to condensed matter physics. A lucid style of writing accompanied by a series of excellent figures make the work accessible to readers outside the rapidly growing research field of ultracold atoms.
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Symmetrien der Natur

Ein Handbuch zur Natur- und Wissenschaftsphilosophie

Author: Klaus Mainzer

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110853655

Category: Philosophy

Page: 750

View: 754

Posted in Philosophy

Ultra-cold Fermi Gases

Author: M. Inguscio,W. Ketterle,C. Salomon

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 1607503182

Category: Science

Page: 932

View: 9953

The field of cold atomic gases faced a revolution in 1995 when Bose-Einstein condensation was achieved. Since then, there has been an impressive progress, both experimental and theoretical. The quest for ultra-cold Fermi gases started shortly after the 1995 discovery, and quantum degeneracy in a gas of fermionic atoms was obtained in 1999. The Pauli exclusion principle plays a crucial role in many aspects of ultra-cold Fermi gases, including inhibited interactions with applications to precision measurements, and strong correlations. The path towards strong interactions and pairing of fermions opened up with the discovery in 2003 that molecules formed by fermions near a Feshbach resonance were surprisingly stable against inelastic decay, but featured strong elastic interactions. This remarkable combination was explained by the Pauli exclusion principle and the fact that only inelastic collisions require three fermions to come close to each other. The unexpected stability of strongly interacting fermions and fermion pairs triggered most of the research which was presented at this summer school. It is remarkable foresight (or good luck) that the first steps to organize this summer school were already taken before this discovery. It speaks for the dynamics of the field how dramatically it can change course when new insight is obtained. The contributions in this volume provide a detailed coverage of the experimental techniques for the creation and study of Fermi quantum gases, as well as the theoretical foundation for understanding the properties of these novel systems.
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Ultracold Quantum Fields

Author: Henk T. C. Stoof,Dennis B. M. Dickerscheid,Koos Gubbels

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402087632

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 485

View: 4560

On June 19th 1999, the European Ministers of Education signed the Bologna Dec laration, with which they agreed that the European university education should be uniformized throughout Europe and based on the two cycle bachelor master’s sys tem. The Institute for Theoretical Physics at Utrecht University quickly responded to this new challenge and created an international master’s programme in Theoret ical Physics which started running in the summer of 2000. At present, the master’s programme is a so called prestige master at Utrecht University, and it aims at train ing motivated students to become sophisticated researchers in theoretical physics. The programme is built on the philosophy that modern theoretical physics is guided by universal principles that can be applied to any sub?eld of physics. As a result, the basis of the master’s programme consists of the obligatory courses Statistical Field Theory and Quantum Field Theory. These focus in particular on the general concepts of quantum ?eld theory, rather than on the wide variety of possible applica tions. These applications are left to optional courses that build upon the ?rm concep tual basis given in the obligatory courses. The subjects of these optional courses in clude, for instance, Strongly Correlated Electrons, Spintronics, Bose Einstein Con densation, The Standard Model, Cosmology, and String Theory.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Atomica Physics 20

XX International Conference on Atomic Physics

Author: Christian Roos,Hartmut Häffner,Rainer Blatt

Publisher: American Inst. of Physics

ISBN: 9780735403673

Category: Science

Page: 330

View: 8801

The 20th International Conference on Atomic Physics brought together more than 800 scientists discussing the most recent advances in atomic physics. Among other topics, this book covers new trends in quantum information, the physics of cold degenerate gases, cold molecules and precision measurements discussed by experts in the respective fields.
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Atome, Moleküle und optische Physik 1

Atomphysik und Grundlagen der Spektroskopie

Author: Ingolf Volker Hertel,Claus-Peter Schulz

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3662468085

Category: Science

Page: 511

View: 859

Das Buch wendet sich an fortgeschrittene Studierende der Physik und der Physikalischen Chemie bis hin zur Promotion. Es bietet eine detaillierte Einführung in die wichtigsten Themen der Atom- und Molekülphysik und der damit verbundenen Methoden moderner optischer Physik. Durch die klar strukturierten Kapitel wird der Leser mit den wichtigsten Phänomenen und Modellen der Atom- und Molekülphysik vertraut gemacht und an deren aktuelle Entwicklungen in der modernen Forschung herangeführt. Der vorliegende erste Teil legt den Schwerpunkt auf die Struktur der Atome und Moleküle und der einschlägigen spektroskopischen Methoden. Um das von Studierenden nachgefragte Buch bis zur Neuauflage auch weiterhin lieferbar halten zu können, wurde es schwarzweiß gedruckt.
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Atomic Physics 9

Author: Robert S. Van Dyck,E. Norval Fortson

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company Incorporated

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 557

View: 8229

Posted in Science