Atmospheric chemistry is one of the fastest growing fields in the earth sciences. Until now, however, there has been no book designed to help students capture the essence of the subject in a brief course of study. Daniel Jacob, a leading researcher and teacher in the field, addresses that problem by presenting the first textbook on atmospheric chemistry for a one-semester course. Based on the approach he developed in his class at Harvard, Jacob introduces students in clear and concise chapters to the fundamentals as well as the latest ideas and findings in the field. Jacob's aim is to show students how to use basic principles of physics and chemistry to describe a complex system such as the atmosphere. He also seeks to give students an overview of the current state of research and the work that led to this point. Jacob begins with atmospheric structure, design of simple models, atmospheric transport, and the continuity equation, and continues with geochemical cycles, the greenhouse effect, aerosols, stratospheric ozone, the oxidizing power of the atmosphere, smog, and acid rain. Each chapter concludes with a problem set based on recent scientific literature. This is a novel approach to problem-set writing, and one that successfully introduces students to the prevailing issues. This is a major contribution to a growing area of study and will be welcomed enthusiastically by students and teachers alike.
Author: Daniel Jacob
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Atmospheric Chemistry provides readers with a basic knowledge of the chemistry of Earth's atmosphere, and an understanding of the role that chemical transformations play in this vital part of our environment. The composition of the 'natural' atmosphere (troposphere, stratosphere and mesosphere) is described in terms of the physical and chemical cycles that govern the behaviour of the major and the many minor species present, and of the atmospheric lifetimes of those species. An extension of these ideas leads to a discussion of the impacts of Man's activities on the atmosphere, and to an understanding of some of the most important environmental issues of our time. One thread of the book explains how living organisms alter the composition and pressures in the atmosphere, modify temperatures, and change the intensity and wavelength-distribution of light arriving from the Sun. Meanwhile, the living organisms on Earth have depended on these very same environmental conditions being satisfactory for the maintenance and evolution of life. There thus appear to be two-way interactions between life and the atmosphere. Man, just one species of living organism, has developed an unfortunate ability to interfere with the feedbacks that seem to have maintained the atmosphere to be supportive of surface life for more than 3.5 billion years. This book will help chemists to understand the background to the problems that arise from such interference. The structure of the book and the development of the subject deviate somewhat from those usually encountered. Important and recurring concepts are presented in outline first, before more detailed discussions of the atmospheric behaviour of specific chemical species. Examples of such themes are the sources and sinks of trace gases, and their budgets and lifetimes. That is, the emphasis is initially on the principles of the subject, with the finer points emerging at later points in the book, sometimes in several successive chapters. In this way, some of the core material gets repeated exposure, but in new ways and in new contexts. The book is written at a level that makes it accessible to undergraduate chemists, and in a manner that should make it interesting to them. However, the material presented forms a solid base for those who are extending their studies to a higher level, and it will also provide non-specialists with the background to an understanding of Man's several and varied threats to the atmosphere. Well-informed citizens can then better assess measures proposed to prevent or alleviate the potential damage, and policy makers more realistically formulate the necessary controls on a sound scientific foundation.
Author: Ann M Holloway,Richard P Wayne
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
Category: Technology & Engineering
The human race has altered the chemical composition of the atmosphere, as evidenced by the notorious London smog, photochemical air pollution, acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion, and elevated greenhouse gas concentrations. The aim of this book series is to present invited summaries of important current research on atmospheric chemistry in a changing world. The summaries range from comprehensive scholarly reviews of major subject areas to more narrowly focused accounts of recent advances by individual research groups. The topics are tied to the important societal issues of air quality, stratospheric ozone depletion, acid deposition, the environmental fate of toxics, and climate change. By gathering these new Advances in one series, we aim to catalyze communication among the many researchers who are studying our changing, contemporary atmosphere.
Author: Barker John R,Steiner Allison L,Wallington Timothy J
Publisher: World Scientific
Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry is a concise, clear review of the fundamental aspects of atmospheric chemistry. In ten succinct chapters, it reviews our basic understanding of the chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere and discusses current environmental issues, including air pollution, acid rain, the ozone hole, and global change. Written by a well-known atmospheric science teacher, researcher, and author of several established textbooks, this book is an introductory textbook for beginning university courses in atmospheric chemistry. Also suitable for self instruction, numerous exercises and solutions make this textbook accessible to students covering atmospheric chemistry as a part of courses in atmospheric science, meteorology, environmental science, geophysics and chemistry. Together with its companion volume, Basic Physical Chemistry for the Atmospheric Sciences (second edition 2000; Cambridge University Press), Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry provides a solid introduction to atmospheric chemistry.
Author: Peter Victor Hobbs
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Expanded and updated with new findings and new features New chapter on Global Climate providing a self-contained treatment of climate forcing, feedbacks, and climate sensitivity New chapter on Atmospheric Organic Aerosols and new treatment of the statistical method of Positive Matrix Factorization Updated treatments of physical meteorology, atmospheric nucleation, aerosol-cloud relationships, chemistry of biogenic hydrocarbons Each topic developed from the fundamental science to the point of application to real-world problems New problems at an introductory level to aid in classroom teaching
From Air Pollution to Climate Change
Author: John H. Seinfeld,Spyros N. Pandis
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Mathematical modeling of atmospheric composition is a formidable scientific and computational challenge. This comprehensive presentation of the modeling methods used in atmospheric chemistry focuses on both theory and practice, from the fundamental principles behind models, through to their applications in interpreting observations. An encyclopaedic coverage of methods used in atmospheric modeling, including their advantages and disadvantages, makes this a one-stop resource with a large scope. Particular emphasis is given to the mathematical formulation of chemical, radiative, and aerosol processes; advection and turbulent transport; emission and deposition processes; as well as major chapters on model evaluation and inverse modeling. The modeling of atmospheric chemistry is an intrinsically interdisciplinary endeavour, bringing together meteorology, radiative transfer, physical chemistry and biogeochemistry, making the book of value to a broad readership. Introductory chapters and a review of the relevant mathematics make this book instantly accessible to graduate students and researchers in the atmospheric sciences.
Author: Guy P. Brasseur,Daniel J. Jacob
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Change presents an integrated examination of chemical processes in the atmosphere, focusing on global-scale problems and their role in the evolution of the Earth system. Taking a largely interdisciplinary approach, it features the collective efforts of a group of scientists at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), as well as other experts from several universities and national laboratories. Topics discussed include the fundamental physical, chemical, and biological processes that affect the atmospheric composition; the chemical mechanisms that affect the production and the fate of important chemical compounds; and the techniques used to investigate the chemical processes in the atmosphere. The book concludes with discussions on global problems related to the atmosphere (stratospheric ozone depletion, changes in greenhouse gases, and global chemical pollution), the relationship between the atmosphere and the global climate, and the long-term chemical evolution of the atmosphere. Each chapter features a brief essay by a leader in the field and includes a large number of current references. Ideal for graduate courses in atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric science, Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Change also serves as an authoritative and practical reference for scientists studying the Earth's atmosphere. Support materials for the book are available via the website http: //acd.ucar.edu/textbook
Author: Guy Brasseur,National Center for Atmospheric Research (U.S.)
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
This book draws upon the knowledge and experience of modeling experts currently engaged in conducting assessments regarding the predictive strength of atmospheric models. The book covers all of the major important atmospheric areas, including large scale models for ozone depletion and global warming, regional scale models for urban smog (ozone and visibility impairment) and acid rain, as well as accompanying models of cloud processes and biofeedbacks. Atmospheric scientists and regulators should consider this book required reading.
Models and Predictions for Climate and Air Quality
Author: Christine S. Sloane,T. W. Tesche
Publisher: CRC Press
Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 26. In the past few years it has become increasingly clear that heterogeneous, or multiphase, processes play an important role in the atmosphere. Unfortunately the literature on the subject, although now fairly extensive, is still rather dispersed. Furthermore, much of the expertise regarding heterogeneous processes lies in fields not directly related to atmospheric science. Therefore, it seemed desirable to bring together for an exchange of ideas, information, and methodologies the various atmospheric scientists who are actively studying heterogeneous processes as well as other researchers studying similar processes in the context of other fields.
Author: David R. Schryer
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
Atmospheric Chemistry has been a rapidly growing field with a recent focus on the major aspects of global environmental change, including stratospheric ozone depletion, UV-B change, and global warming. This book describes recent developments in our understanding of the global aspects of the chemistry in the main parts of the atmosphere, troposphere, and stratosphere, as obtained from field observations, laboratory investigations, and modeling studies. Although this chemistry is largely driven by reactions between gas phase species, recent progress made in the understanding of chemical reactions occuring in clouds and on the surface of aerosols is also reported.
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Atmospheric chemistry is central to understanding global changes ? ozone depletion, appearance of the polar ozone holes, and compositional changes which worsen the greenhouse effect. Because of its importance, work is progressing on many fronts.This volume emphasizes the troposhere and stratosphere and has chapters on gas phase, condensed phase, and heterogeneous chemistry. Present progress is emphasized, and important future directions are also described.This book fills a need not satisfied by any others and will be popular for some years to come. It informs students and newcomers to the field of the many facets of atmospheric chemistry and can be used as a text for advanced students. It is also a valuable desk reference summarizing activities by quite a number of the most active research groups.Chapter 18 by Kolb et al. on heterogeneous chemistry is especially noteworthy because it represents a unique joint effort by several groups working on a very timely subject; they describe a conceptual framework and establish conventions which will be standard in future papers on this subject.
Author: John Roger Barker
Publisher: World Scientific
Praise for Guy P. Brasseur's Atmospheric Chemistry in a Changing World American Meteorological Society "This volume summarizes and integrates more than a decade of atmospheric chemistry research. During the period under consideration, great progress has been made in computing, modeling, and observational techniques, and methods have also improved. Here, suggestions for the highest priority research for the next decade are made, and important information is related regarding impacts on the environment."
An Integration and Synthesis of a Decade of Tropospheric Chemistry Research
Author: Guy P. Brasseur,Ronald G. Prinn,Alexander A.P. Pszenny
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Here is the most comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of one of the hottest areas of chemical research. The treatment of fundamental kinetics and photochemistry will be highly useful to chemistry students and their instructors at the graduate level, as well as postdoctoral fellows entering this new, exciting, and well-funded field with a Ph.D. in a related discipline (e.g., analytical, organic, or physical chemistry, chemical physics, etc.). Chemistry of the Upper and Lower Atmosphere provides postgraduate researchers and teachers with a uniquely detailed, comprehensive, and authoritative resource. The text bridges the "gap" between the fundamental chemistry of the earth's atmosphere and "real world" examples of its application to the development of sound scientific risk assessments and associated risk management control strategies for both tropospheric and stratospheric pollutants. Serves as a graduate textbook and "must have" reference for all atmospheric scientists Provides more than 5000 references to the literature through the end of 1998 Presents tables of new actinic flux data for the troposphere and stratospher (0-40km) Summarizes kinetic and photochemical date for the troposphere and stratosphere Features problems at the end of most chapters to enhance the book's use in teaching Includes applications of the OZIPR box model with comprehensive chemistry for student use
Theory, Experiments, and Applications
Author: Barbara J. Finlayson-Pitts,James N. Pitts, Jr.
Papers from the 9th World Clean Air Congress, Towards the Year 2000--critical Issues in the Global Environment, Montréal, Québec, Canada, August 30-September 4, 1992
Proceedings of a Symposium Held at Taft Sanitary Engineering Center, Geophysical Monograph 3
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
Our world is changing at an accelerating rate. The global human population has grown from 6.1 billion to 7.1 billion in the last 15 years and is projected to reach 11.2 billion by the end of the century. The distribution of humans across the globe has also shifted, with more than 50 percent of the global population now living in urban areas, compared to 29 percent in 1950. Along with these trends, increasing energy demands, expanding industrial activities, and intensification of agricultural activities worldwide have in turn led to changes in emissions that have altered the composition of the atmosphere. These changes have led to major challenges for society, including deleterious impacts on climate, human and ecosystem health. Climate change is one of the greatest environmental challenges facing society today. Air pollution is a major threat to human health, as one out of eight deaths globally is caused by air pollution. And, future food production and global food security are vulnerable to both global change and air pollution. Atmospheric chemistry research is a key part of understanding and responding to these challenges. The Future of Atmospheric Chemistry Research: Remembering Yesterday, Understanding Today, Anticipating Tomorrow summarizes the rationale and need for supporting a comprehensive U.S. research program in atmospheric chemistry; comments on the broad trends in laboratory, field, satellite, and modeling studies of atmospheric chemistry; determines the priority areas of research for advancing the basic science of atmospheric chemistry; and identifies the highest priority needs for improvements in the research infrastructure to address those priority research topics. This report describes the scientific advances over the past decade in six core areas of atmospheric chemistry: emissions, chemical transformation, oxidants, atmospheric dynamics and circulation, aerosol particles and clouds, and biogeochemical cycles and deposition. This material was developed for the NSFâ€™s Atmospheric Chemistry Program; however, the findings will be of interest to other agencies and programs that support atmospheric chemistry research.
Remembering Yesterday, Understanding Today, Anticipating Tomorrow
Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,Committee on the Future of Atmospheric Chemistry Research
Publisher: National Academies Press
Aerosols and Atmospheric Chemistry is a collection of papers presented at the American Chemical Society Kendall Award Symposium honoring Professor Milton Kerker, held in Los Angeles, California, on March 28-April 2, 1971. Contributors focus on the physical chemistry of aerosols and their relationship to atmospheric chemistry. Topics covered range from the optical and dynamical properties of aerosols to the kinetics of growth of an aerosol in a flow reactor. The formation and chemical reactions of atmospheric particles are also discussed. This book is comprised of 30 chapters and begins with an overview of some of the optical and dynamical properties of aerosols, along with the preparation of submicron aerosols by condensation. The discussion then turns to the formation and properties of neutral ultrafine particles and small ions conditioned by gaseous impurities of the air; preparation of ultrafine metal oxide particles in a hydrogen-oxygen flame; production of aerosols by X-rays; and condensational growth of atmospheric aerosols. A comparison of synthetic and smog aerosols is also presented. The final section is devoted to the Los Angeles (Pasadena) Smog Project—its genesis, objectives, and scope—and provides a detailed description of the Minnesota Aerosol Analyzing System used in the project. This monograph will be a useful resource for chemists as well as students and researchers interested in aerosol and atmospheric chemistry.
The Kendall Award Symposium Honoring Professor Milton Kerker
Author: Milton Kerker