Chickens are now the most scientifically engineered of livestock. How have the methods used by geneticists differed from those employed by domestic breeders over time? Art and Science in Breeding details the relationship between farm practices and agricultural genetics in poultry breeding from 1850 to 1960. Margaret E. Derry traces the history and organization of chicken breeding in North America, from craft approaches and breeding as an 'art,' to the conflicts that had emerged between traditional and scientific methods by the 1940s. Derry assesses links between the 'scientific' revolution of chicken farming and the development of corporate breeding as a modern, international industry. Using poultry as a case study for the wider narrative of agricultural genetics, Art and Science in Breeding adds considerable knowledge to a rapidly growing field of inquiry.
Creating Better Chickens
Author: Margaret Elsinor Derry
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
Chickens are now the most scientifically engineered of livestock. How have the methods used by geneticists differed from those employed by domestic breeders over time? Art and Science in Breeding details the relationship between farm practices and agricultural genetics in poultry breeding from 1850 to 1960. Margaret E. Derry traces the history and organization of chicken breeding in North America, from craft approaches and breeding as an ‘art,’ to the conflicts that had emerged between traditional and scientific methods by the 1940s. Derry assesses links between the 'scientific' revolution of chicken farming and the development of corporate breeding as a modern, international industry. Using poultry as a case study for the wider narrative of agricultural genetics, Art and Science in Breeding adds considerable knowledge to a rapidly growing field of inquiry.
Creating Better Chickens
Author: Margaret Derry
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
Disheartened by the shrink-wrapped, Styrofoam-packed state of contemporary supermarket fruits and vegetables, many shoppers hark back to a more innocent time, to visions of succulent red tomatoes plucked straight from the vine, gleaming orange carrots pulled from loamy brown soil, swirling heads of green lettuce basking in the sun. With Hybrid, Noel Kingsbury reveals that even those imaginary perfect foods are themselves far from anything that could properly be called natural; rather, they represent the end of a millennia-long history of selective breeding and hybridization. Starting his story at the birth of agriculture, Kingsbury traces the history of human attempts to make plants more reliable, productive, and nutritious—a story that owes as much to accident and error as to innovation and experiment. Drawing on historical and scientific accounts, as well as a rich trove of anecdotes, Kingsbury shows how scientists, amateur breeders, and countless anonymous farmers and gardeners slowly caused the evolutionary pressures of nature to be supplanted by those of human needs—and thus led us from sparse wild grasses to succulent corn cobs, and from mealy, white wild carrots to the juicy vegetables we enjoy today. At the same time, Kingsbury reminds us that contemporary controversies over the Green Revolution and genetically modified crops are not new; plant breeding has always had a political dimension. A powerful reminder of the complicated and ever-evolving relationship between humans and the natural world, Hybrid will give readers a thoughtful new perspective on—and a renewed appreciation of—the cereal crops, vegetables, fruits, and flowers that are central to our way of life.
The History and Science of Plant Breeding
Author: Noel Kingsbury
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Forest tree breeding has been ongoing for more than 70 years across Europe. It has successfully generated improved varieties for the major economical forest tree species. They are part of the present European forestry landscape and largely contribute to intensive wood production and other forest activities. In this book, we describe the state-of-art of breeding for the main forest tree species. We provide a comprehensive, unique and up-to-date overview of the major scientific results and breeding achievements gathered from the many programmes scattered across Europe. The book is divided into 10 chapters, each as a monograph corresponding to a species or group of species Abies spp., (Larix spp., Picea abies, Picea sitchensis, Pinus sylvestris, Pseudotsuga menziesii, and Mediterranean pines; Acer pseudoplatanus, Fraxinus excelsior, and Prunus avium). Each of them is written by a group of experts and focuses on the distribution and economical importance of the species; motivation for breeding and breeding objectives; intraspecific genetic variability, breeding populations and breeding strategy; forest reproductive material deployment including mass-propagation and, prospects and perspectives for joint research and breeding. The book is a unique and up-dated source of information for students, researchers and professionals interested in the genetics and domestication of forest tree species.
Current State-of-the-Art and Perspectives
Author: Luc E Pâques
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
To respond to the increasing need to feed the world's population as well as an ever greater demand for a balanced and healthy diet there is a continuing need to produce improved new cultivars or varieties of plants, particularly crop plants. The strategies used to produce these are increasingly based on our knowledge of relevant science, particularly genetics, but involves a multidisciplinary understanding that optimizes the approaches taken. Principles of Plant Genetics and Breeding, 2nd Edition introduces both classical and molecular tools for plant breeding. Topics such as biotechnology in plant breeding, intellectual property, risks, emerging concepts (decentralized breeding, organic breeding), and more are addressed in the new, updated edition of this text. Industry highlight boxes are included throughout the text to contextualize the information given through the professional experiences of plant breeders. The final chapters provide a useful reference on breeding the largest and most common crops. Up-to-date edition of this bestselling book incorporating the most recent technologies in the field Combines both theory and practice in modern plant breeding Updated industry highlights help to illustrate the concepts outlined in the text Self assessment questions at the end of each chapter aid student learning Accompanying website with artwork from the book available to instructors
Author: George Acquaah
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
A lavishly illustrated look at how evolution plays out in selective breeding Unnatural Selection is a stunningly illustrated book about selective breeding--the ongoing transformation of animals at the hand of man. More important, it's a book about selective breeding on a far, far grander scale—a scale that encompasses all life on Earth. We'd call it evolution. A unique fusion of art, science, and history, this book celebrates the 150th anniversary of Charles Darwin's monumental work The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication, and is intended as a tribute to what Darwin might have achieved had he possessed that elusive missing piece to the evolutionary puzzle—the knowledge of how individual traits are passed from one generation to the next. With the benefit of a century and a half of hindsight, Katrina van Grouw explains evolution by building on the analogy that Darwin himself used—comparing the selective breeding process with natural selection in the wild, and, like Darwin, featuring a multitude of fascinating examples. This is more than just a book about pets and livestock, however. The revelation of Unnatural Selection is that identical traits can occur in all animals, wild and domesticated, and both are governed by the same evolutionary principles. As van Grouw shows, animals are plastic things, constantly changing. In wild animals the changes are usually too slow to see—species appear to stay the same. When it comes to domesticated animals, however, change happens fast, making them the perfect model of evolution in action. Suitable for the lay reader and student, as well as the more seasoned biologist, and featuring more than four hundred breathtaking illustrations of living animals, skeletons, and historical specimens, Unnatural Selection will be enjoyed by anyone with an interest in natural history and the history of evolutionary thinking.
Author: Katrina van Grouw
Publisher: Princeton University Press
There are still many unknowns in the breeding of Thoroughbreds, but the international research coalition known as the Equine Genome Project is facilitating many new exciting discoveries. Dr Matthew Binns is a leader of the project, an enterprise set up to map the equine genome, and with racing historian and bloodstock authority Tony Morris has written this important book on the theory, practice, art and science of Thoroughbred breeding.This long-awaited book describes how man came to express pedigree and to develop theories about it, and how practical breeders behaved in the light of their understanding. It explains why many theories - including some still widely granted credibility today - are fallacious, examines the very real progress in knowledge since the principles of genetics were discovered, and focuses on the exciting developments of the last few years, when eminent geneticists have applied their expertise to the subject of the Thoroughbred.It has been the authors' endeavour to present that information in a form that may be readily understood by anyone who shares a love of the Thoroughbred and a fascination with what makes him what he is. Packed with absorbing history and cutting-edge science, this is a fascinating and illuminating book.
Pedigree Theories and the Science of Genetics
Author: Matthew M. Binns,Matthew Binns,Tony Morris
Publisher: J. A. Allen, Limited
This comprehensive 2007 survey of modern plant breeding traces its history from the earliest experiments at the dawn of the scientific revolution in the seventeenth century to the present day and the existence of high tech agribusiness. Murphy tells the story from the perspective of a scientist working in this field, offering a rationale and evidence-based insight into its development. Crop improvement is examined from both a scientific and socio-economic perspective and the ways in which these factors interact and impact on agricultural development are discussed, including debates on genetically-modified food. Murphy highlights concerns over the future of plant breeding, as well as potential options to enable us to meet the challenges of feeding the world in the 21st century. This thoroughly interdisciplinary and balanced account serves as an essential resource for everyone involved with plant breeding research, policy and funding, as well as those wishing to engage with current debates.
Societal Context and the Future of Agriculture
Author: Denis Murphy
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
First edition, Winner of the Arthur J. Viseltear Prize, American Public Health Association With an emphasis on the American West, Eugenic Nation explores the long and unsettled history of eugenics in the United States. This expanded second edition includes shocking details demonstrating that eugenics continues to inform institutional and reproductive injustice. Alexandra Minna Stern draws on recently uncovered historical records to reveal patterns of racial bias in California’s sterilization program and documents compelling individual experiences. With the addition of radically new and relevant research, this edition connects the eugenic past to the genomic present with attention to the ethical and social implications of emerging genetic technologies.
Faults and Frontiers of Better Breeding in Modern America
Author: Alexandra Minna Stern
Publisher: Univ of California Press
This comprehensive research book represents the first complete integration of current knowledge in this area. It addresses issues associated with poultry breeding particularly by examining quantitative and molecular genetics and the uses of transgenic technology. A special section covers the important area of disease resistance and transmission.
Author: W. M. Muir,S. E. Aggrey
Category: Technology & Engineering
While preparing the first edition of this textbook I attended an extension short course on writing agricultural publications. The message I remember was "select your audience and write to it. " There has never been any doubt about the audience for which this textbook was written, the introductory course in crop breeding. In addition, it has become a widely used reference for the graduate plant-breeding student and the practicing plant breeder. In its prepa ration, particular attention has been given to advances in plant-breeding theo ry and their utility in plant-breeding practice. The blend of the theoretical with the practical has set this book apart from other plant-breeding textbooks. The basic structure and the objectives of the earlier editions remain un changed. These objectives are (1) to review essential features of plant re production, Mendelian genetic principles, and related genetic developments applicable in plant-breeding practice; (2) to describe and evaluate established and new plant-breeding procedures and techniques, and (3) to discuss plant breeding objectives with emphasis on the importance of proper choice of objec tive for achieving success in variety development. Because plant-breeding activities are normally organized around specific crops, there are chapters describing breeding procedures and objectives for the major crop plants; the crops were chosen for their economic importance or diversity in breeding sys tems. These chapters provide a broad overview of the kinds of problems with which the breeder must cope.
Author: John M. Poehlman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Biotechnology and Plant Breeding includes critical discussions of the newest and most important applications of biotechnology in plant breeding, covering key topics such as biometry applied to molecular analysis of genetic diversity, genetically modified plants, and more. This work goes beyond recombinant DNA technology to bring together key information and references on new biotech tools for cultivar development, such as double-haploids, molecular markers, and genome-wide selection, among others. It is increasingly challenging for plant breeders and agricultural systems to supply enough food, feed, fiber and biofuel for the global population. As plant breeding evolves and becomes increasingly sophisticated, a staggering volume of genetic data is now generated. Biotechnology and Plant Breeding helps researchers and students become familiar with how the vast amounts of genetic data are generated, stored, analyzed and applied. This practical resource integrates information about plant breeding into the context of modern science, and assists with training for plant breeders including those scientists who have a good understanding of molecular biology/biotechnology and need to learn the art and practice of plant breeding. Plant biologists, breeding technicians, agronomists, seed technologists, students, and any researcher interested in biotechnologies applied to plant breeding will find this work an essential tool and reference for the field. Presents in-depth but easy-to-understand coverage of topics, so plant breeders can readily comprehend them and apply them to their breeding programs Includes chapters that address the already developed and optimized biotechnologies for cultivar development, with real-world application for users Features contributions by authors with several years of experience in their areas of expertise
Applications and Approaches for Developing Improved Cultivars
Author: Aluízio Borém,Roberto Fritsche-Neto
Category: Technology & Engineering
The foundation of quantitative genetics theory was developed during the last century and facilitated many successful breeding programs for cultivated plants and t- restrial livestock. The results have been almost universally impressive, and today nearly all agricultural production utilises genetically improved seed and animals. The aquaculture industry can learn a great deal from these experiences, because the basic theory behind selective breeding is the same for all species. The ?rst published selection experiments in aquaculture started in 1920 s to improve disease resistance in ?sh, but it was not before the 1970 s that the ?rst family based breeding program was initiated for Atlantic salmon in Norway by AKVAFORSK. Unfortunately, the subsequent implementation of selective breeding on a wider scale in aquaculture has been slow, and despite the dramatic gains that have been demonstrated in a number of species, less than 10% of world aquaculture production is currently based on improved stocks. For the long-term sustainability of aquaculture production, there is an urgent need to develop and implement e- cient breeding programs for all species under commercial production. The ability for aquaculture to successfully meet the demands of an ever increasing human p- ulation, will rely on genetically improved stocks that utilise feed, water and land resources in an ef?cient way. Technological advances like genome sequences of aquaculture species, and advanced molecular methods means that there are new and exciting prospects for building on these well-established methods into the future.
Author: Trygve Gjedrem,Matthew Baranski
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Brighter zinnias, fragrant carnations, snappier green beans Plant Breeding for the Home Gardener makes it easier than ever to breed and grow your own varieties of vegetables and flowers. This comprehensive and accessible guide explains how to decide what to breed, provides simple explanations on how to cross plants, and features a basic primer on genetics and advanced techniques. Case studies provide breeding examples for favorite plants like daffodils, hollyhocks, roses, sweet corn, and tomatoes.
How to Create Unique Vegetables and Flowers
Author: Joseph Tychonievich
Publisher: Timber Press
"[Book title] is the definitive guide to plant breeding and seed saving for the serious home gardener and the small-scale farmer or commercial grower. Discover: how to breed for a wide range of different traits (flavor, size, shape, or color; cold or heat tolerance; pest and disease resistance; and regional adaptation); how to save seed and maintain varieties; how to conduct your own variety trials and other farm- or garden-based research; how to breed for performance under organic or sustainable growing methods."--Back cover.
The Gardener's and Farmer's Guide to Plant Breeding and Seed Saving, 2nd Edition
Author: Carol Deppe
Publisher: Chelsea Green Publishing
Answers to questions about the successful breeding of dogs, including commonly seen problems. Includes charts and tables.
Author: Margaret V. Root Kustritz
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
The author of the critically acclaimed Worldly Goods presents a thoughtful reassessment of the Renaissance in terms of its influence on the history of science, relating the era's imaginative, artistic endeavors to the creative inspiration behind the scientific discoveries of the period. Reprint. 20,000 first printing.
Building the Scientific Revolution
Author: Lisa Jardine
This book fills the gap between textbooks of quantitative genetic theory, and software manuals that provide details on analytical methods but little context or perspective on which methods may be most appropriate for a particular application. Accordingly this book is composed of two sections. The first section (Chapters 1 to 8) covers topics of classical phenotypic data analysis for prediction of breeding values in animal and plant breeding programs. In the second section (Chapters 9 to 13) we provide the concept and overall review of available tools for using DNA markers for predictions of genetic merits in breeding populations. With advances in DNA sequencing technologies, genomic data, especially single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, have become available for animal and plant breeding programs in recent years. Analysis of DNA markers for prediction of genetic merit is a relatively new and active research area. The algorithms and software to implement these algorithms are changing rapidly. This section represents state-of-the-art knowledge on the tools and technologies available for genetic analysis of plants and animals. However, readers should be aware that the methods or statistical packages covered here may not be available or they might be out of date in a few years. Ultimately the book is intended for professional breeders interested in utilizing these tools and approaches in their breeding programs. Lastly, we anticipate the usage of this volume for advanced level graduate courses in agricultural and breeding courses.
Author: Fikret Isik,James Holland,Christian Maltecca
Flowers are essential crops which beautify interiorscapes, outdoor landscapes and enhance human health. Floriculture is one of the fastest-growing sectors of commercial agriculture world-wide with many highly profitable crops. Such a diversity of new and domesticated flower crops is created by public and private sector flower breeders. This book provides a unique and valuable resource on the many issues and challenges facing flower breeders, as well as the industry at-large. In this volume, the first comprehensive assemblage of its kind, a team of 32 international authorities has contributed to make this book a ‘must-have’ reference to research and develop flower crops for the 21st century consumers. Part 1 of this book (flower breeding program issues) contains unique features of interest to horticultural professionals and students, include coverage of plant protection strategies, cultivar trialing methodology, germplasm collection/preservation, preventing invasiveness, and other timely topics. The collective body of knowledge for 24 flower crops (Part 2: Crop-specific Breeding and Genetics) represents the in-depth science and art of breeding technology available for bedding plants, flowering potted plants, cut flowers, and herbaceous perennials. Each author provides crop-specific history, evolution, biology, taxonomy, state-of-the-art breeding/genetics, classical/molecular technologies, species traits, interspecific hybridization, and directions for future development/enhancement.
Issues, Challenges and Opportunities for the 21st Century
Author: Neil O. Anderson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media