Art and Science in Breeding

Creating Better Chickens

Author: Margaret Elsinor Derry

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 1442643951

Category: History

Page: 281

View: 4155

Chickens are now the most scientifically engineered of livestock. How have the methods used by geneticists differed from those employed by domestic breeders over time? Art and Science in Breeding details the relationship between farm practices and agricultural genetics in poultry breeding from 1850 to 1960. Margaret E. Derry traces the history and organization of chicken breeding in North America, from craft approaches and breeding as an 'art,' to the conflicts that had emerged between traditional and scientific methods by the 1940s. Derry assesses links between the 'scientific' revolution of chicken farming and the development of corporate breeding as a modern, international industry. Using poultry as a case study for the wider narrative of agricultural genetics, Art and Science in Breeding adds considerable knowledge to a rapidly growing field of inquiry.
Posted in History

New Perspectives on the History of Life Sciences and Agriculture

Author: Denise Phillips,Sharon Kingsland

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319121855

Category: Science

Page: 509

View: 4080

This volume explores problems in the history of science at the intersection of life sciences and agriculture, from the mid-eighteenth to the mid-twentieth century. Taking a comparative national perspective, the book examines agricultural practices in a broad sense, including the practices and disciplines devoted to land management, forestry, soil science, and the improvement and management of crops and livestock. The life sciences considered include genetics, microbiology, ecology, entomology, forestry, and deal with US, European, Russian, Japanese, Indonesian, Chinese contexts. The book shows that the investigation of the border zone of life sciences and agriculture raises many interesting questions about how science develops. In particular it challenges one to re-examine and take seriously the intimate connection between scientific development and the practical goals of managing and improving – perhaps even recreating – the living world to serve human ends. Without close attention to this zone it is not possible to understand the emergence of new disciplines and transformation of old disciplines, to evaluate the role and impact of such major figures of science as Humboldt and Mendel, or to appreciate how much of the history of modern biology has been driven by national ambitions and imperialist expansion in competition with rival nations.
Posted in Science

Plant Breeding Reviews

Author: Jules Janick

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470650168

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 6083

Plant Breeding Reviews presents state-of-the-art reviews on plant genetics and the breeding of all types of crops by both traditional means and molecular methods. Many of the crops widely grown today stem from a very narrow genetic base; understanding and preserving crop genetic resources is vital to the security of food systems worldwide. The emphasis of the series is on methodology, a fundamental understanding of crop genetics, and applications to major crops.
Posted in Science

Flower Breeding and Genetics

Issues, Challenges and Opportunities for the 21st Century

Author: Neil O. Anderson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402065699

Category: Education

Page: 822

View: 4350

Flowers are essential crops which beautify interiorscapes, outdoor landscapes and enhance human health. Floriculture is one of the fastest-growing sectors of commercial agriculture world-wide with many highly profitable crops. Such a diversity of new and domesticated flower crops is created by public and private sector flower breeders. This book provides a unique and valuable resource on the many issues and challenges facing flower breeders, as well as the industry at-large. In this volume, the first comprehensive assemblage of its kind, a team of 32 international authorities has contributed to make this book a ‘must-have’ reference to research and develop flower crops for the 21st century consumers. Part 1 of this book (flower breeding program issues) contains unique features of interest to horticultural professionals and students, include coverage of plant protection strategies, cultivar trialing methodology, germplasm collection/preservation, preventing invasiveness, and other timely topics. The collective body of knowledge for 24 flower crops (Part 2: Crop-specific Breeding and Genetics) represents the in-depth science and art of breeding technology available for bedding plants, flowering potted plants, cut flowers, and herbaceous perennials. Each author provides crop-specific history, evolution, biology, taxonomy, state-of-the-art breeding/genetics, classical/molecular technologies, species traits, interspecific hybridization, and directions for future development/enhancement.
Posted in Education

Equine Internal Medicine - E-Book

Author: Stephen M. Reed,Warwick M. Bayly,Debra C. Sellon

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 1437708854

Category: Medical

Page: 1488

View: 4032

Develop an essential understanding of the principles of equine disease with this one-of-a-kind, problem-based resource! Extensively revised and updated with contributions from an international team of experts, Equine Internal Medicine, 3rd Edition reflects the latest clinical research in equine medicine and focuses on the basic pathophysiologic mechanisms that underlie the development of various equine diseases to help you confidently diagnose, treat, and manage patient conditions. Problem-based approach outlines how to apply the latest clinical evidence directly to the conditions you’ll encounter in practice. Pathophysiology is emphasized throughout, providing a sound basis for discussions of the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis that follow. Body systems chapters begin with a thorough discussion of the diagnostic method appropriate to the system, including physical examination, clinical pathology, radiography, endoscopy, and ultrasonography. Flow charts, diagrams, and algorithms clarify complex material. Extensive content updates help you improve patient care with up-to-date research and clinical evidence across the full spectrum of equine practice, including: New sections on biofilm ahesins, resistance to phagocytosis, and host substrate utilization New information on changes in body weight Recent findings on fibrocoxib and diclofenac Expanded and reorganized coverage of critical care New material on inborn errors of metabolism and acquired myopathies Detailed treatment information on various disorders of the reproductive tract A new section on toxicoses causing signs related to liver disease or dysfunction Bound-in companion DVD includes more than 120 high-quality video clips that guide you through procedures related to the cardiovascular and neurologic systems.
Posted in Medical

Forest Tree Breeding in Europe

Current State-of-the-Art and Perspectives

Author: Luc E Pâques

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400761465

Category: Science

Page: 527

View: 7698

Forest tree breeding has been ongoing for more than 70 years across Europe. It has successfully generated improved varieties for the major economical forest tree species. They are part of the present European forestry landscape and largely contribute to intensive wood production and other forest activities. In this book, we describe the state-of-art of breeding for the main forest tree species. We provide a comprehensive, unique and up-to-date overview of the major scientific results and breeding achievements gathered from the many programmes scattered across Europe. The book is divided into 10 chapters, each as a monograph corresponding to a species or group of species Abies spp., (Larix spp., Picea abies, Picea sitchensis, Pinus sylvestris, Pseudotsuga menziesii, and Mediterranean pines; Acer pseudoplatanus, Fraxinus excelsior, and Prunus avium). Each of them is written by a group of experts and focuses on the distribution and economical importance of the species; motivation for breeding and breeding objectives; intraspecific genetic variability, breeding populations and breeding strategy; forest reproductive material deployment including mass-propagation and, prospects and perspectives for joint research and breeding. The book is a unique and up-dated source of information for students, researchers and professionals interested in the genetics and domestication of forest tree species.
Posted in Science

Quantitative Genetics and Breeding Methods

The Way Ahead : Proceedings of the Eleventh Meeting of the EUCARPIA Section Biometrics in Plant Breeding, Paris, France, August 30/31-September 1, 2000

Author: Eucarpia. Biometrics in Plant Breeding. Meeting,A. Gallais

Publisher: Editions Quae

ISBN: 9782738009524

Category: Biometry

Page: 331

View: 8130

Posted in Biometry

Quantitative Genetics in Maize Breeding

Author: Arnel R. Hallauer,Marcelo J. Carena,J.B. Miranda Filho

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781441907660

Category: Science

Page: 664

View: 2444

Maize is used in an endless list of products that are directly or indirectly related to human nutrition and food security. Maize is grown in producer farms, farmers depend on genetically improved cultivars, and maize breeders develop improved maize cultivars for farmers. Nikolai I. Vavilov defined plant breeding as plant evolution directed by man. Among crops, maize is one of the most successful examples for breeder-directed evolution. Maize is a cross-pollinated species with unique and separate male and female organs allowing techniques from both self and cross-pollinated crops to be utilized. As a consequence, a diverse set of breeding methods can be utilized for the development of various maize cultivar types for all economic conditions (e.g., improved populations, inbred lines, and their hybrids for different types of markets). Maize breeding is the science of maize cultivar development. Public investment in maize breeding from 1865 to 1996 was $3 billion (Crosbie et al., 2004) and the return on investment was $260 billion as a consequence of applied maize breeding, even without full understanding of the genetic basis of heterosis. The principles of quantitative genetics have been successfully applied by maize breeders worldwide to adapt and improve germplasm sources of cultivars for very simple traits (e.g. maize flowering) and very complex ones (e.g., grain yield). For instance, genomic efforts have isolated early-maturing genes and QTL for potential MAS but very simple and low cost phenotypic efforts have caused significant and fast genetic progress across genotypes moving elite tropical and late temperate maize northward with minimal investment. Quantitative genetics has allowed the integration of pre-breeding with cultivar development by characterizing populations genetically, adapting them to places never thought of (e.g., tropical to short-seasons), improving them by all sorts of intra- and inter-population recurrent selection methods, extracting lines with more probability of success, and exploiting inbreeding and heterosis. Quantitative genetics in maize breeding has improved the odds of developing outstanding maize cultivars from genetically broad based improved populations such as B73. The inbred-hybrid concept in maize was a public sector invention 100 years ago and it is still considered one of the greatest achievements in plant breeding. Maize hybrids grown by farmers today are still produced following this methodology and there is still no limit to genetic improvement when most genes are targeted in the breeding process. Heterotic effects are unique for each hybrid and exotic genetic materials (e.g., tropical, early maturing) carry useful alleles for complex traits not present in the B73 genome just sequenced while increasing the genetic diversity of U.S. hybrids. Breeding programs based on classical quantitative genetics and selection methods will be the basis for proving theoretical approaches on breeding plans based on molecular markers. Mating designs still offer large sample sizes when compared to QTL approaches and there is still a need to successful integration of these methods. There is a need to increase the genetic diversity of maize hybrids available in the market (e.g., there is a need to increase the number of early maturing testers in the northern U.S.). Public programs can still develop new and genetically diverse products not available in industry. However, public U.S. maize breeding programs have either been discontinued or are eroding because of decreasing state and federal funding toward basic science. Future significant genetic gains in maize are dependent on the incorporation of useful and unique genetic diversity not available in industry (e.g., NDSU EarlyGEM lines). The integration of pre-breeding methods with cultivar development should enhance future breeding efforts to maintain active public breeding programs not only adapting and improving genetically broad-based germplasm but also developing unique products and training the next generation of maize breeders producing research dissertations directly linked to breeding programs. This is especially important in areas where commercial hybrids are not locally bred. More than ever public and private institutions are encouraged to cooperate in order to share breeding rights, research goals, winter nurseries, managed stress environments, and latest technology for the benefit of producing the best possible hybrids for farmers with the least cost. We have the opportunity to link both classical and modern technology for the benefit of breeding in close cooperation with industry without the need for investing in academic labs and time (e.g., industry labs take a week vs months/years in academic labs for the same work). This volume, as part of the Handbook of Plant Breeding series, aims to increase awareness of the relative value and impact of maize breeding for food, feed, and fuel security. Without breeding programs continuously developing improved germplasm, no technology can develop improved cultivars. Quantitative Genetics in Maize Breeding presents principles and data that can be applied to maximize genetic improvement of germplasm and develop superior genotypes in different crops. The topics included should be of interest of graduate students and breeders conducting research not only on breeding and selection methods but also developing pure lines and hybrid cultivars in crop species. This volume is a unique and permanent contribution to breeders, geneticists, students, policy makers, and land-grant institutions still promoting quality research in applied plant breeding as opposed to promoting grant monies and indirect costs at any short-term cost. The book is dedicated to those who envision the development of the next generation of cultivars with less need of water and inputs, with better nutrition; and with higher percentages of exotic germplasm as well as those that pursue independent research goals before searching for funding. Scientists are encouraged to use all possible breeding methodologies available (e.g., transgenics, classical breeding, MAS, and all possible combinations could be used with specific sound long and short-term goals on mind) once germplasm is chosen making wise decisions with proven and scientifically sound technologies for assisting current breeding efforts depending on the particular trait under selection. Arnel R. Hallauer is C. F. Curtiss Distinguished Professor in Agriculture (Emeritus) at Iowa State University (ISU). Dr. Hallauer has led maize-breeding research for mid-season maturity at ISU since 1958. His work has had a worldwide impact on plant-breeding programs, industry, and students and was named a member of the National Academy of Sciences. Hallauer is a native of Kansas, USA. José B. Miranda Filho is full-professor in the Department of Genetics, Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz - University of São Paulo located at Piracicaba, Brazil. His research interests have emphasized development of quantitative genetic theory and its application to maize breeding. Miranda Filho is native of Pirassununga, São Paulo, Brazil. M.J. Carena is professor of plant sciences at North Dakota State University (NDSU). Dr. Carena has led maize-breeding research for short-season maturity at NDSU since 1999. This program is currently one the of the few public U.S. programs left integrating pre-breeding with cultivar development and training in applied maize breeding. He teaches Quantitative Genetics and Crop Breeding Techniques at NDSU. Carena is a native of Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Posted in Science

The Art and Science of Livestock Evaluation

Author: Ray V Herren

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 1428335927

Category: Social Science

Page: 576

View: 3476

THE ART AND SCIENCE OF LIVESTOCK EVALUATION is designed for students studying livestock selection. The main objective of the book is to provide instruction and evaluation on swine, cattle, horses and sheep, with separate chapters supplying current information on the various species of livestock. Information is also included that instructs students on how to compete in and judge competition. The aim is to help students develop the necessary skills to evaluate positive and negative traits such as structural fitness, body fat, muscling, and all the other many qualities used to appraise animals. Chapters are also included that deal with selecting livestock using performance data, and how to evaluate animals based upon live observations and recorded data. The text is also loaded with detailed images and illustrations that provide students with sharp visual examples of normal and abnormal animal traits. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
Posted in Social Science

Principles of Plant Genetics and Breeding

Author: George Acquaah

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118313690

Category: Science

Page: 760

View: 5245

To respond to the increasing need to feed the world's population as well as an ever greater demand for a balanced and healthy diet there is a continuing need to produce improved new cultivars or varieties of plants, particularly crop plants. The strategies used to produce these are increasingly based on our knowledge of relevant science, particularly genetics, but involves a multidisciplinary understanding that optimizes the approaches taken. Principles of Plant Genetics and Breeding, 2nd Edition introduces both classical and molecular tools for plant breeding. Topics such as biotechnology in plant breeding, intellectual property, risks, emerging concepts (decentralized breeding, organic breeding), and more are addressed in the new, updated edition of this text. Industry highlight boxes are included throughout the text to contextualize the information given through the professional experiences of plant breeders. The final chapters provide a useful reference on breeding the largest and most common crops. Up-to-date edition of this bestselling book incorporating the most recent technologies in the field Combines both theory and practice in modern plant breeding Updated industry highlights help to illustrate the concepts outlined in the text Self assessment questions at the end of each chapter aid student learning Accompanying website with artwork from the book available to instructors
Posted in Science

Principles and Procedures of Plant Breeding

Biotechnological and Conventional Approaches

Author: G. S. Chahal,S. S. Gosal

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780849313219

Category: Science

Page: 604

View: 9666

Covering traditional and emerging breeding procedures, this book explores the scientific bases and details of breeding plants. It puts a special emphasis on the further refinements possible in the light of the latest developments in molecular biology. Specific breeding methods in self and cross-pollinated crops, their genetic basis and scope of further refinements, concepts and techniques of tissue culture, molecular biology and production of transgenic plants, commonly used experimental designs in plant breeding, seed production, and implications of plant breeder's rights are other highlights.
Posted in Science

Breeding Field Crops

Author: John M. Poehlman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401572712

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 724

View: 1919

While preparing the first edition of this textbook I attended an extension short course on writing agricultural publications. The message I remember was "select your audience and write to it. " There has never been any doubt about the audience for which this textbook was written, the introductory course in crop breeding. In addition, it has become a widely used reference for the graduate plant-breeding student and the practicing plant breeder. In its prepa ration, particular attention has been given to advances in plant-breeding theo ry and their utility in plant-breeding practice. The blend of the theoretical with the practical has set this book apart from other plant-breeding textbooks. The basic structure and the objectives of the earlier editions remain un changed. These objectives are (1) to review essential features of plant re production, Mendelian genetic principles, and related genetic developments applicable in plant-breeding practice; (2) to describe and evaluate established and new plant-breeding procedures and techniques, and (3) to discuss plant breeding objectives with emphasis on the importance of proper choice of objec tive for achieving success in variety development. Because plant-breeding activities are normally organized around specific crops, there are chapters describing breeding procedures and objectives for the major crop plants; the crops were chosen for their economic importance or diversity in breeding sys tems. These chapters provide a broad overview of the kinds of problems with which the breeder must cope.
Posted in Juvenile Nonfiction

Breeding For Ornamentals: Classical and Molecular Approaches

Author: A. Vainstein

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402005084

Category: Gardening

Page: 392

View: 6899

In this book we bring together the most up-to-date information on developments, both basic and applied, that already have or are expected to impact the field of ornamental breeding. These include classical and molecular techniques, traditional and high-throughput approaches and future trends. Since not only professional scientists, but also thousands of future scientists/students as well as amateur breeders around the world contribute heavily to the field of ornamental breeding, an introductory section dealing with the basics of molecular and classical genetics and the evolution of floral diversity is included. This should enable the reader to bridge the gap between traditional and molecular genetics. Classical approaches to the creation/selection of genetic variability, including mutation and tissue culture-aided breeding, are presented. Processes affecting ornamental and agronomic traits at the molecular level are delineated, along with an in-depth analysis of developments in the protection of intellectual property rights. The thoughts and strategies of molecular and classical geneticists, which are not always complementary or even compatible, are presented side by side in this book, and will serve to spark the imaginations of breeders as well as students entering the exciting world of state-of-the-art ornamentals.
Posted in Gardening

The British Encyclopedia

Or, Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. Comprising an Accurate and Popular View of the Present Improved State of Human Knowledge

Author: William Nicholson

Publisher: N.A


Category: Natural history

Page: 680

View: 7865

Posted in Natural history

Molecular Plant Breeding

Author: Yunbi Xu

Publisher: CABI

ISBN: 1845936248

Category: Science

Page: 734

View: 6211

Recent advances in plant genomics and molecular biology have revolutionized our understanding of plant genetics, providing new opportunities for more efficient and controllable plant breeding. Successful techniques require a solid understanding of the underlying molecular biology as well as experience in applied plant breeding. Bridging the gap between developments in biotechnology and its applications in plant improvement, Molecular Plant Breeding provides an integrative overview of issues from basic theories to their applications to crop improvement including molecular marker technology, gene mapping, genetic transformation, quantitative genetics, and breeding methodology.
Posted in Science

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA; Or, A DICTIONARY of Arts and Sciences, Compiled Upon a New Plan. In Wich the Different Science and Arts are Digested Into Distinct Treatises Or Systems; and The Various Technical Terms, ... are Explained as They Occur in the Order of the Alphabet. Illustrated with One Hundred and Sixty Copperplates, by a Society of Gentlemen in Scotland. IN THREE VOLUMES. Edinburgh: Printed for A. Bell and C. Macfarquhar; and Fold by Colin Macfarquhar, at this Printing-office, Nicolson Street. M.D.CC.LXXI.

2: [CAB-LYT].

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A



Page: 1009

View: 4673

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