Arrested Justice

Black Women, Violence, and America’s Prison Nation

Author: Beth E. Richie

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814708226

Category: Social Science

Page: 244

View: 9918

Black women in marginalized communities are uniquely at risk of battering, rape, sexual harassment, stalking and incest. Through the compelling stories of Black women who have been most affected by racism, persistent poverty, class inequality, limited access to support resources or institutions, Beth E. Richie shows that the threat of violence to Black women has never been more serious, demonstrating how conservative legal, social, political and economic policies have impacted activism in the U.S.-based movement to end violence against women. Richie argues that Black women face particular peril because of the ways that race and culture have not figured centrally enough in the analysis of the causes and consequences of gender violence. As a result, the extent of physical, sexual and other forms of violence in the lives of Black women, the various forms it takes, and the contexts within which it occurs are minimized—at best—and frequently ignored. Arrested Justice brings issues of sexuality, class, age, and criminalization into focus right alongside of questions of public policy and gender violence, resulting in a compelling critique, a passionate re-framing of stories, and a call to action for change.
Posted in Social Science

Intimate Justice

The Black Female Body and the Body Politic

Author: Shatema Threadcraft

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190251638

Category: African American women

Page: 208

View: 5507

In 1973, the year the women's movement won an important symbolic victory with Roe v. Wade, reports surfaced that twelve-year-old Minnie Lee Relf and her fourteen-year-old sister Mary Alice, the daughters of black Alabama farm hands, had been sterilized without their or their parents' knowledge or consent. Just as women's ability to control reproduction moved to the forefront of the feminist movement, the Relf sisters' plight stood as a reminder of the ways in which the movement's accomplishments had diverged sharply along racial lines. Thousands of forced sterilizations were performed on black women during this period, convincing activists in the Black Power, civil rights and women's movements that they needed to address, pointedly, the racial injustices surrounding equal access to reproductive labor and intimate life in America. As horrific as the Relf tragedy was, it fit easily within a set of critical events within black women's sexual and reproductive history in America, which black feminists argue began with coerced reproduction and enforced child neglect in the period of enslavement. While reproductive rights activists and organizations, historians and legal scholars have all begun to grapple with this history and its meaning, political theorists have yet to do so. Intimate Justice charts the long and still incomplete path to black female intimate freedom and equality--a path marked by infanticides, sexual terrorism, race riots, coerced sterilizations and racially biased child removal policies. In order to challenge prevailing understandings of freedom and equality, Shatema Threadcraft considers the troubled status of black female intimate life during four moments: antebellum slavery, Reconstruction, the nadir, and the civil rights and women's movement eras. Taking up important and often overlooked aspects of the necessary conditions for justice, Threadcraft's book is a compelling challenge to the meaning of equality in American race and gender relations.
Posted in African American women

Understanding restorative justice

How empathy can close the gap created by crime

Author: Wallis, Pete

Publisher: Policy Press

ISBN: 1447317424

Category: Political Science

Page: 224

View: 8840

This unique book is a clear and detailed introduction that analyses how restorative justice nurtures empathy, exploring key themes such as responsibility, shame, forgiveness and closure. The core notion of the book is that when a crime is committed, it separates people, creating a ‘gap’. This can only be reduced or closed through information and insight about the other person, which have the potential to elicit empathy and compassion from both sides. The book explores this extraordinary journey from harm to healing using the structure of a timeline: from an offence, through the criminal justice process and into the heart of the restorative meeting. Using case studies, the book offers a fresh angle on a topic that is of growing interest both in the UK and internationally. It is ideal as a comprehensive introduction for those new to restorative justice and as a best practice guide for existing practitioners.
Posted in Political Science

Transition and Justice

Negotiating the Terms of New Beginnings in Africa

Author: Gerhard Anders,Olaf Zenker

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118944763

Category: Political Science

Page: 256

View: 8279

Transition and Justice examines a series of cases from across the African continent where peaceful ‘new beginnings’ were declared after periods of violence and where transitional justice institutions helped define justice and the new socio-political order. Offers a new perspective on transition and justice in Africa transcending the institutional limits of transitional justice Covers a wide range of situations, and presents a broad range of sites where past injustices are addressed Examines cases where peaceful ‘new beginnings’ have been declared after periods of violence Addresses fundamental questions about transitions and justice in societies characterized by a high degree of external involvement and internal fragmentation
Posted in Political Science

The First Civil Right

How Liberals Built Prison America

Author: Naomi Murakawa

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199380724

Category: Law

Page: 304

View: 5020

The explosive rise in the U.S. incarceration rate in the second half of the twentieth century, and the racial transformation of the prison population from mostly white at mid-century to sixty-five percent black and Latino in the present day, is a trend that cannot easily be ignored. Many believe that this shift began with the "tough on crime" policies advocated by Republicans and southern Democrats beginning in the late 1960s, which sought longer prison sentences, more frequent use of the death penalty, and the explicit or implicit targeting of politically marginalized people. In The First Civil Right, Naomi Murakawa inverts the conventional wisdom by arguing that the expansion of the federal carceral state-a system that disproportionately imprisons blacks and Latinos-was, in fact, rooted in the civil-rights liberalism of the 1940s and early 1960s, not in the period after. Murakawa traces the development of the modern American prison system through several presidencies, both Republican and Democrat. Responding to calls to end the lawlessness and violence against blacks at the state and local levels, the Truman administration expanded the scope of what was previously a weak federal system. Later administrations from Johnson to Clinton expanded the federal presence even more. Ironically, these steps laid the groundwork for the creation of the vast penal archipelago that now exists in the United States. What began as a liberal initiative to curb the mob violence and police brutality that had deprived racial minorities of their 'first civil right-physical safety-eventually evolved into the federal correctional system that now deprives them, in unjustly large numbers, of another important right: freedom. The First Civil Right is a groundbreaking analysis of root of the conflicts that lie at the intersection of race and the legal system in America.
Posted in Law

Reinventing Juvenile Justice

Author: Barry Krisberg,James F. Austin,James Austin

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780803948297

Category: Social Science

Page: 212

View: 6645

A painful view of the current state of juvenile justice in the United States is presented in this volume which asks whether the 'children's court' has outlived its usefulness. As pressure builds to handle more children in adult courts and to consign them to adult prisons, the authors explore alternatives to the custodial treatment of juveniles and suggest how the juvenile justice system can, and should, be reformed.
Posted in Social Science

Violence at the Urban Margins

Author: Javier Auyero,Philippe Bourgois,Nancy Scheper-Hughes

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190221488

Category: Social Science

Page: 352

View: 9039

In the Americas, debates around issues of citizen's public safety--from debates that erupt after highly publicized events, such as the shootings of Jordan Davis and Trayvon Martin, to those that recurrently dominate the airwaves in Latin America--are dominated by members of the middle and upper-middle classes. However, a cursory count of the victims of urban violence in the Americas reveals that the people suffering the most from violence live, and die, at the lowest of the socio-symbolic order, at the margins of urban societies. The inhabitants of the urban margins are hardly ever heard in discussions about public safety. They live in danger but the discourse about violence and risk belongs to, is manufactured and manipulated by, others--others who are prone to view violence at the urban margins as evidence of a cultural, or racial, defect, rather than question violence's relationship to economic and political marginalization. As a result, the experience of interpersonal violence among the urban poor becomes something unspeakable, and the everyday fear and trauma lived in relegated territories is constantly muted and denied. This edited volume seeks to counteract this pernicious tendency by putting under the ethnographic microscope--and making public--the way in which violence is lived and acted upon in the urban peripheries. It features cutting-edge ethnographic research on the role of violence in the lives of the urban poor in South, Central, and North America, and sheds light on the suffering that violence produces and perpetuates, as well as the individual and collective responses that violence generates, among those living at the urban margins of the Americas.
Posted in Social Science

The Thin Justice of International Law

A Moral Reckoning of the Law of Nations

Author: Steven R. Ratner

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191009113

Category: Law

Page: 500

View: 4594

In a world full of armed conflict and human misery, global justice remains one of the most compelling missions of our time. Understanding the promises and limitations of global justice demands a careful appreciation of international law, the web of binding norms and institutions that help govern the behaviour of states and other global actors. This book provides a new interdisciplinary approach to global justice, one that integrates the work and insights of international law and contemporary ethics. It asks whether the core norms of international law are just, appraising them according to a standard of global justice derived from the fundamental values of peace and the protection of human rights. Through a combination of a careful explanation of the legal norms and philosophical argument, Ratner concludes that many international law norms meet such a standard of justice, even as distinct areas of injustice remain within the law and the verdict is still out on others. Among the subjects covered in the book are the rules on the use of force, self-determination, sovereign equality, the decision making procedures of key international organizations, the territorial scope of human rights obligations (including humanitarian intervention), and key areas of international economic law. Ultimately, the book shows how an understanding of international law's moral foundations will enrich the global justice debate, while exposing the ethical consequences of different rules.
Posted in Law

Deviant Behavior

Patterns, Sources, and Control

Author: J.A. Humphrey,S. Palmer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1489905839

Category: Philosophy

Page: 294

View: 4811

This book is for the student in the introductory course on deviant be havior and in related courses. A wide range of ideas and facts is set forth in a way that should be comprehensible to the student without prior knowledge of this area of study. In Chapter 1, "The Nature of Deviance," various ways of defining deviance are explored and one is settled upon: Deviance is behavior that is unusual, not typical, in a society or group. Chapter 2 is devoted to a preliminary consideration of several main currents of social thought that seek to explain why deviance comes about and is perpetrated. These explanations fall into four broad theo retical categories. First, there are those theories that view the major sources of deviance as having to do with the extent to which individ uals are bound into or dissociated from the group; these are termed social integration theories. Second, there are the cultural support the ories, which specify that there are subcultures of deviance, that is, bod ies of customs and values that advocate a given form of deviance and are socially transmitted from one person to another through the learn ing process. Third, there are social disorganization and conflict theo ries, which focus on the ways in which a lack of group organization and the presence of broad social and cultural conflicts bring about de viance.
Posted in Philosophy

Juvenile Justice

Redeeming Our Children

Author: Barry Krisberg

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 0761925015

Category: Social Science

Page: 236

View: 7393

Juvenile Justice: Redeeming Our Children debunks myths about juvenile justice in order to achieve an ideal system that would protect vulnerable children and help build safer communities. Author Barry Krisberg assembles broad and up-to-date research, statistical data, and theories on the U.S. juvenile justice system to encourage effective responses to youth crime. This text gives a historical context to the ongoing quest for the juvenile justice ideal and examines how the current system of laws, policies, and practices came into place.
Posted in Social Science

Entextualizing Domestic Violence

Language Ideology and Violence Against Women in the Anglo-American Hearsay Principle

Author: Jennifer Andrus

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190266414

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 232

View: 8421

Language ideology is a concept developed in linguistic anthropology to explain the ways in which ideas about the definition and functions of language can become linked with social discourses and identities. In Entextualizing Domestic Violence, Jennifer Andrus demonstrates how language ideologies that are circulated in the Anglo-American law of evidence draw on and create indexical links to social discourses, affecting speakers whose utterances are used as evidence in legal situations. Andrus addresses more specifically the tendency of such a language ideology to create the potential to speak for, appropriate, and ignore the speech of women who have been victims of domestic violence. In addition to identifying specific linguistic strategies employed in legal situations, she analyzes assumptions about language circulated and animated in the legal text and talk used to evaluate spoken evidence, and describes the consequences of the language ideology when it is co-articulated with discourses about gender and domestic violence. The book focuses on the pair of rules concerning hearsay and its exceptions in the Anglo-American law of evidence. Andrus considers legal discourses, including statutes, precedents, their application in trials, and the relationship between such legal discourses and social discourses about domestic violence. Using discourse analysis, she demonstrates the ways legal metadiscourses about hearsay are articulated with social discourses about domestic violence, and the impact of this powerful co-articulation on the individual whose speech is legally appropriated. Andrus approaches legal rules and language ideology both diachronically and synchronically in this book, which will be an important addition to ongoing research and discussion on the role legal appropriation of speech may have in perpetuating the voicelessness of victims in the legal treatment of domestic violence.
Posted in Language Arts & Disciplines

Beyond Justice

Author: Rebecca Wittmann

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674045297

Category: History

Page: 360

View: 2909

In 1963, West Germany was gripped by a dramatic trial of former guards who had worked at the Nazi death camp Auschwitz. It was the largest and most public trial to take place in the country and attracted international attention. Using the pretrial files and extensive trial audiotapes, Rebecca Wittmann offers a fascinating reinterpretation of Germany’s first major attempt to confront its past.
Posted in History

Crime Control and Social Justice

The Delicate Balance

Author: Darnell Felix Hawkins,Samuel L. Myers,Randolph N. Stone

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: 9780313307904

Category: Social Science

Page: 488

View: 6569

This collection examines the perennial tension between society's need to protect its citizens from crime, while assuring that the crime control and reduction measures that it enacts do not deny basic rights or exacerbate the socioeconomic inequality that gives rise to disparate rates of offending. Focusing largely on developments in criminal justice policies and practices enacted during the last few decades, the essays in this volume explore the delicate balance between governmental crime control efforts and professed goals of promoting social justice and protecting civil liberties.
Posted in Social Science

Fatherhood Arrested

Parenting from Within the Juvenile Justice System

Author: Anne Nurse

Publisher: Vanderbilt University Press

ISBN: 9780826514059

Category: Self-Help

Page: 166

View: 9796

Studies the effects that jail time and parole have on the relationships between young fathers and their children, with research revealing how the prison structure and its programs help fathers stay in touch with sons and daughters.
Posted in Self-Help

Pornography and The Criminal Justice System

Author: Carmen M. Cusack

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482260026

Category: Law

Page: 290

View: 6187

This volume assembles hundreds of cases and studies to provide the most accurate and comprehensive picture of the status of pornography in the criminal justice system. Presenting high-level research in an accessible and organized manner, it explores a range of topics, including investigating and prosecuting a case, arguments favoring and opposing decriminalization of pornography, and relationships between pornography, mental disorders, and crime. It also examines criminal justice responses and international laws, policies, attitudes, and definitions of pornography in comparison to those of the United States.
Posted in Law