Armed Conflict in Syria

Author: Congressional Service

Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform

ISBN: 9781986397858


Page: 46

View: 5055

The Syria conflict, now in its seventh year, remains a significant policy challenge for the United States. U.S. policy toward Syria in the past several years has given highest priority to counterterrorism operations against the Islamic State (IS, also known as ISIL/ISIS), but also included assistance to opposition-held communities, support for diplomatic efforts to reach a political settlement to the civil war, and the provision of humanitarian assistance in Syria and surrounding countries. The counter-IS campaign works primarily "by, with, and through" local partners, per a broader U.S. strategy initiated by the Obama Administration and continued with modifications by the Trump Administration. The United States has simultaneously advocated for a political track to reach a negotiated settlement between the government of Syrian President Bashar al Asad and opposition forces, within the framework of U.N.-mediated talks in Geneva. For a brief conflict summary, see Figure 2. Since the recapture of the Islamic State's self-proclaimed capital at Raqqah by U.S.-backed forces in October 2017, Trump Administration officials have reemphasized that the United States is entering a "new phase" that will focus on "de-escalating violence overall in Syria through a combination of ceasefires and de-escalation areas." These efforts are designed to create the conditions for a national-level political process ultimately culminating in a new constitution and U.N.-supervised elections. In January 2018, Secretary of State Rex Tillerson laid out the Administration's policy for future U.S. involvement in Syria, stating that the United States intends to maintain a military presence there to prevent a resurgence by the Islamic State. To date, the United States has directed nearly $7.7 billion toward Syria-related humanitarian assistance, and Congress has appropriated billions more to support security and stabilization initiatives in Syria and in neighboring countries. The Defense Department has not disaggregated the costs of military operations in Syria from the overall cost of Operation Inherent Resolve (OIR), which has reached over $18.5 billion. The executive branch has reprogrammed or requested more than $2.2 billion to train, equip, advise, and assist vetted Syrians as part of a specially authorized program in place since late 2014. Congress also has debated proposals to authorize or restrict the use of military force against the Islamic State and in response to Syrian government chemical weapons attacks, but has not enacted any Syria-specific use of force authorizations. Looking forward, policymakers may consider questions regarding the purpose, scope, and duration of the U.S. military presence in Syria, the effectiveness of U.S. cooperation with Russia, post-Islamic State governance and reconstruction, as well as the challenges of reaching a political settlement between the Asad government and a broad spectrum of armed and political opposition actors.
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Armed Conflict in Syria

Overview and U.S. Response

Author: Christopher M. Christopher M. Blanchard,Carla E. Carla E. Humud,Mary Mary Beth D. Nikitin,Congressional Research Congressional Research Service

Publisher: CreateSpace

ISBN: 9781502507754


Page: 36

View: 6655

The summer 2014 offensive in neighboring Iraq by the insurgent terrorist group known as the Islamic State (IS, aka the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant or ISIL/ISIS) has reshaped longstanding debates over U.S. policy toward the three-year old conflict in Syria. The Islamic State controls large areas of northeastern Syria, where it continues to clash with forces opposed to and aligned with the government of Bashar al Asad. Meanwhile, fighting continues in other parts of Syria, pitting government forces and their foreign allies against a range of anti-government insurgents, many of whom also are engaged in battles with IS forces. Since March 2011, the conflict has driven more than 3 million Syrians into neighboring countries as refugees (out of a total population of more than 22 million). Millions more Syrians are internally displaced and in need of humanitarian assistance, of which the United States remains the largest bilateral provider, with more than $2.4 billion in funding identified to date. The United States also has allocated a total of $287 million to date for nonlethal assistance to select opposition groups. Prior to the Islamic State's mid-2014 advances in Iraq, the Administration had requested $2.75 billion in funding for the Syria crisis for FY2015. Neither pro-Asad forces nor their opponents appear capable of achieving outright victory in the short term. However, the prospect of international intervention to degrade the capabilities of the Islamic State appears to be driving speculation among many parties to the conflict that dramatic changes in the dynamics of what has remained a grinding war of attrition could soon be possible. Some opposition forces seek to cast themselves as potential allies to outsiders who are opposed to both the Islamic State and the Syrian government, while others reject the idea of foreign intervention outright or demand that foreigners focus solely on toppling President Asad. Syrian officials have stated their conditional willingness to serve as partners with the international community in counterterrorism operations in Syria, a position that reflects their desire to create an image and role for the Asad government as a bulwark against Sunni Islamist extremism. For the United States and others examining options for weakening the Islamic State, these conditions raise questions about how best to pursue new counterterrorism and regional security goals without strengthening the Syrian government relative to the opposition groups and civilians it has brutalized during the conflict. Similar questions arise in relation to options for countering the Islamic State without bolstering other anti-U.S. Islamist groups. At present, anti-Asad armed forces and their activist counterparts remain divided over tactics, strategy, and their long-term political goals for Syria, with some powerful Islamist forces seeking outcomes that are contrary in significant ways to stated U.S. preferences for Syria's political future. The United Nations Security Council also seeks continued Syrian government cooperation with efforts to verifiably end Syria's chemical weapons program. As of September 2014, all declared chemical weapons had been removed from Syria, and all declared materials of priority concern had been destroyed. Related facilities are set for destruction by March 2015.
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Armed Conflict in Syria

Overview and U.S. Response

Author: Christopher M. Blanchard,Carla E. Humud,Mary Beth Nikitin

Publisher: CreateSpace

ISBN: 9781505438192


Page: 34

View: 5265

Fighting continues across Syria, pitting government forces and their foreign allies against a range of anti-government insurgents, some of whom also are fighting amongst themselves. Since March 2011, the conflict has driven more than 2.8 million Syrians into neighboring countries as refugees (out of a total population of more than 22 million). Millions more Syrians are internally displaced and in need of humanitarian assistance, of which the United States remains the largest bilateral provider, with more than $2 billion in funding identified to date. The United States also has allocated a total of $287 million to date to provide nonlethal assistance to select groups.
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HC 231 - Counter-Terrorism

Seventeenth Report of Session 2013-14, Report, Together with Formal Minutes and Oral Evidence

Author: Great Britain: Parliament: House of Commons: Home Affairs Committee,Keith Vaz

Publisher: The Stationery Office

ISBN: 0215071956

Category: Law

Page: 112

View: 4226

Recent events involving Boko Haram, Al-Shabab and Al Qaeda show that the terrorist threat to the UK is as grave as at any point in the past thirteen years. Interpol have the resources and experience to build a platform and the UK must take the lead in bringing others to the table. However, ensuring public safety cannot be the sole purview of the counterterrorism command and the security service, it is a responsibility in which all UK citizens and companies take a share. Stopping British men and women going to become foreign fighters, in Syria and other theatres of conflict, and engaging with them when they return is vital to avoid endangering the security of the UK. Whether in classrooms, local community centres, or through the global reach of the internet and social media, a clear message needs to be sent to those at risk. The agencies are at the cutting edge of sophistication and are owed an equally refined system of democratic scrutiny. It is an embarrassing indictment of our system that some in the media felt compelled to publish leaked information to ensure that matters were heard in Parliament. The Intelligence and Security Committee should be given a democratic mandate in the same way as other Select Committees
Posted in Law

Al Qaeda’s Global Crisis

The Islamic State, Takfir and the Genocide of Muslims

Author: V. G. Julie Rajan

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317645383

Category: Political Science

Page: 354

View: 9594

This book focuses on the crises facing Al Qaeda and how the mass killing of Muslims is challenging its credibility as a leader among Islamist jihadist organizations. The book argues that these crises are directly related to Al Qaeda’s affiliation with the extreme violence employed against Muslims in Iraq, Syria, Afghanistan and Pakistan in the decade since 9/11. Al Qaeda’s public and private responses to this violence differ greatly. While in public Al Qaeda has justified those attacks declaring that, for the establishment of a state of ‘true believers’, they are a necessary evil, in private Al Qaeda has been advising its local affiliates to refrain from killing Muslims. To better understand the crises facing Al Qaeda, the book explores the development of Central Al Qaeda’s complex relationship with radical (mis)appropriations and manifestations of takfir, which allows one Muslim to declare another an unbeliever, and its unique relationship with each of its affiliates in Iraq, Syria, Afghanistan and Pakistan. The author then goes on to consider how the prominence of takfir is contributing to the deteriorating security in those countries and how this is affecting Al Qaeda’s credibility as an Islamist terror organization. The book concludes by considering the long-term viability of Al Qaeda and how its demise could allow the rise of the even more radical, violent Islamic State and the implications this has for the future security of the Middle East, North Africa and Central/South Asia. This book will be of much interest to students of political violence and terrorism, Islamism, global security and IR.
Posted in Political Science

Internal Conflict Regions in the Middle East

Iraq and Syria

Author: Dana V. Gray

Publisher: Nova Science Pub Incorporated

ISBN: 9781633212596

Category: Political Science

Page: 107

View: 8012

Since the 2011 U.S. withdrawal from Iraq, sectarian divisions have widened, fuelling a revival of a Sunni Muslim insurgent challenge to Iraqs stability. Iraqs Sunni Arab Muslims resent Shiite political domination and perceived discrimination by the government of Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki. Iraqs Kurds are embroiled in separate political disputes with the Baghdad government over territorial, political, and economic issues, particularly their intent to separately export large volumes of oil produced in the Kurdish region. Fighting also continues across Syria, pitting government forces and their foreign allies against a range of anti-government insurgents, some of whom also are fighting amongst themselves. The ongoing conflict that began in March 2011 in Syria has created one of the most pressing humanitarian crises in the world. Three years later, as of early March 2014, an estimated 9.3 million people inside Syria, nearly half the population, have been affected by the conflict. This book discusses the political, and internal conflicts of both Iraq and Syria. It provides information on the politics, governance, and human rights in Iraq; an overview of armed conflict in Syria, as well as the United States response; and an overview of the humanitarian response in Syria as well.
Posted in Political Science

Herrschaft über Syrien

Macht und Manipulation unter Assad

Author: Daniel Gerlach

Publisher: Edition Körber

ISBN: 3896844784

Category: Political Science

Page: 392

View: 9524

Auch nach Jahren der Tyrannei und des Krieges hält sich das syrische Regime noch immer an der Macht. Aber wer und was ist eigentlich dieses Regime? Welche Kräfte und Narrative halten es im Inneren zusammen? Der Journalist und Orientalist Daniel Gerlach entwirrt die Hintergründe einer Logik der Gewalt und Manipulation, der sich die Herrschenden auch selbst unterworfen haben. Was 2011 als Aufbegehren gegen ein politisch und moralisch bankrottes System begann, eskaliert immer weiter, beschleunigt noch durch die Exzesse des »Islamischen Staates«. Ratlos schaut die Welt zu, kann oder will nicht helfen - zu verworren scheinen die Konfliktlinien, zu groß ist die Sorge, die »falsche Seite« zu unterstützen. Daniel Gerlach beleuchtet das schizophrene Verhältnis der Religionen und Konfessionen in Syrien, das Wirken sichtbarer und unsichtbarer Mächte, die diesen Konflikt so unerbittlich machen. Er beschreibt die Geister der Vergangenheit, erzählt von traumatischen Erfahrungen und ihrer Wirkung auf das heutige Syrien. Klar wendet sich Gerlach gegen die Behauptung, das Regime sei der Garant für Stabilität und den Erhalt eines Staates, den es womöglich längst nicht mehr gibt. Die Lage ist undurchsichtig - auf ihrer Unwissenheit ausruhen können sich die internationalen Mächte nun allerdings nicht mehr.
Posted in Political Science

The Syria Train and Equip Program

Elements and Issues

Author: Mandel Eugene

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781634841085


Page: 106

View: 4759

In 2014, Congress for the first time provided the President with authority and funds to overtly train and lethally equip vetted members of the Syrian opposition for select purposes. These purposes include supporting U.S. efforts to combat the Islamic State and other terrorist organisations in Syria and setting the conditions for a negotiated settlement to Syrias civil war. The FY2015 National Defense Authorization Act and the FY2015 Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015 provided that up to $500 million could be transferred from the newly-established Counterterrorism Partnerships Fund (CTPF) to train and equip such Syrian forces. Additional funding could be provided from other sources for the Syrian Train and Equip Program, including from foreign contributions, subject to the approval of the congressional defense committees. This book discusses the authorities, the funding, and issues for Congress of the Train and Equip Program for Syria. Moreover, the book provides an overview of armed conflict in Syria, and the U.S. response.
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Die neuen Kriege

Author: Herfried Münkler

Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH

ISBN: 3644011214

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 5808

Das Zeitalter der zwischenstaatlichen Kriege geht offenbar zu Ende. Aber der Krieg ist keineswegs verschwunden, er hat nur seine Erscheinungsform verändert. In den neuen Kriegen spielen nicht mehr die Staaten die Hauptrolle, sondern Warlords, Söldner und Terroristen. Die Gewalt richtet sich vor allem gegen die Zivilbevölkerung; Hochhäuser werden zu Schlachtfeldern, Fernsehbilder zu Waffen. Herfried Münkler macht die Folgen dieser Entwicklung deutlich. Er zeigt, wie mit dem Verschwinden von klassischen Schlachten und Frontlinien auch die Unterscheidung von Krieg und Frieden brüchig geworden ist, und erörtert, wie man den besonderen Gefahren begegnen kann, die von den neuen Kriegen ausgehen.
Posted in Political Science

Das Mosaik des Islam

Author: Perry Anderson,Suleiman Mourad

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 3946334377

Category: Religion

Page: 152

View: 7486

Wird die Gegenwart kompliziert, hilft es, einen Blick zurück zu werfen. Im Gespräch mit seinem Kollegen Perry Anderson zeichnet der Historiker Suleiman Mourad die Geschichte des Korans und des muslimischen Glaubens nach. Dass hier ein sachkundiger Mediävist und Kenner der politischen und intellektuellen Landschaft der Gegenwart Rede und Antwort steht, ist das große Glück dieses über die Dauer eines Jahres geführten Dialogs. Der Bogen spannt sich von den Anfängen des Korans über Mohammed, die sunnitisch-schiitische Spaltung, die Entwicklung des Dschihad und Reformbestrebungen bis hin zum modernen Islam und seinen heutigen Herausforderungen. "Andersons Fragen sind präzise, prägnant und kraftvoll, Mourads Antworten klug, verständlich und unvoreingenommen. Unentbehrlich!" Le Monde
Posted in Religion


Eine neue Geschichte der Menschheit

Author: Steven Pinker

Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag

ISBN: 310401616X

Category: History

Page: 1216

View: 3280

Die Geschichte der Menschheit – eine ewige Abfolge von Krieg, Genozid, Mord, Folter und Vergewaltigung. Und es wird immer schlimmer. Aber ist das richtig? In einem wahren Opus Magnum, einer groß angelegten Gesamtgeschichte unserer Zivilisation, untersucht der weltbekannte Evolutionspsychologe Steven Pinker die Entwicklung der Gewalt von der Urzeit bis heute und in allen ihren individuellen und kollektiven Formen, vom Verprügeln der Ehefrau bis zum geplanten Völkermord. Unter Rückgriff auf eine Fülle von wissenschaftlichen Belegen aus den unterschiedlichsten Disziplinen beweist er zunächst, dass die Gewalt im Laufe der Geschichte stetig abgenommen hat und wir heute in der friedlichsten Epoche der Menschheit leben. Diese verblüffende Tatsache verlangt nach einer Erklärung: Pinker schält in seiner Analyse sechs Entwicklungen heraus, die diesen Trend begünstigt haben, untersucht die Psychologie der Gewalt auf fünf innere Dämonen, die Gewaltausübung begünstigen, benennt vier Eigenschaften des Menschen, die den inneren Dämonen entgegenarbeiten und isoliert schließlich fünf historische Kräfte, die uns heute in der friedlichsten Zeit seit jeher leben lassen. Pinkers Darstellung revolutioniert den Blick auf die Welt und uns Menschen. Und sie macht Hoffnung und Mut. »Pinkers Studie ist eine leidenschaftliche Antithese zum verbreiteten Kulturpessimismus und dem Gefühl des moralischen Untergangs der Moderne.« Der Spiegel »Steven Pinker ist ein Top-Autor und verdient all die Superlative, mit denen man ihn überhäuft« New York Times» Die Argumente von Steven Pinker haben Gewicht [...]. Die Chance, heute Opfer von Gewalt zu werden, ist viel geringer als zu jeder anderen Zeit. Das ist eine spannende Nachricht, die konträr zur öffentlichen Wahrnehmung ist." Deutschlandfunk »Steven Pinker ist ein intellektueller Rockstar« The Guardian »Der Evolutionspsychologe Steven Pinker gilt als wichtigster Intellektueller« Süddeutsche Zeitung »Verflucht überzeugend« Hamburger Abendblatt
Posted in History

Das digitale Kalifat

Die geheime Macht des Islamischen Staates

Author: Abdel Bari Atwan

Publisher: C.H.Beck

ISBN: 3406697283

Category: Political Science

Page: 299

View: 7626

Der "Islamische Staat“ beruht auf zwei Pfeilern: auf seinem Territorium und auf einer digitalen Infrastruktur, mit der er hocheffizient organisiert wird. Abdel Bari Atwan, der das IS-Gebiet bereist und zahllose Interviews mit Jihadisten geführt hat, bietet in seinem Buch erstmals Einblicke in die digitalen Institutionen und Kommandostrukturen des IS und stellt dessen führende Köpfe vor. Viele Computerspiele faszinieren durch die Verbindung von mittelalterlichem Ambiente und Hightech. Genau hier liegt für viele Jihadisten auch die Faszination des IS, der eine "mittelalterliche“ Ordnung mit Hilfe des Internets aufrechterhält. Das Steuersystem orientiert sich am Koran, wird aber digital organisiert. Das Finanzwesen beruht auf dem Zinsverbot, verwaltet aber den Staatshaushalt und die Einnahmen aus Ölexport, Antiquitätenhandel und Entführung mit elektronischen Krypto-Währungen. Das Bildungswesen sorgt für Koranlektüre, aber auch für digital kompetenten Nachwuchs – auch weiblichen. Der Propagandaapparat setzt auf die Inszenierung von Gewalt und beschäftigt dafür eine ganze Armee von Fotografen, Video-Filmern und Spiele-Entwicklern. Atwan beschreibt die Rolle des Darknet und erklärt, warum die Cyber-Jihadisten dem elektronischen "Counter-Jihad“ immer eine Nasenlänge voraus sein werden. Sein alarmierender Bericht sollte allen zu denken geben, die den IS mit militärischen Mitteln besiegen wollen.
Posted in Political Science

In Putins Russland

Author: Anna S. Politkovskaja

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783596179275


Page: 314

View: 1338

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Jurnal politica

dinamika masalah politik dalam negeri & hubungan internasional

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A


Category: Indonesia

Page: N.A

View: 6047

Posted in Indonesia

Eine Erinnerung an Solferino

Author: Jean-Henry Dunant

Publisher: N.A


Category: Solferino, Battle of, 1859

Page: 128

View: 3393

Posted in Solferino, Battle of, 1859

Bush in Babylon

die Re-Kolonisierung des Irak

Author: Tariq Ali

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783720524803

Category: Iraq

Page: 224

View: 794

Posted in Iraq

Law and War in Syria

A Legal Account of the Current Crisis in Syria

Author: Claudia Tofan,Willem-Jan van der Wolf

Publisher: International Courts Assoc

ISBN: 9789058870599

Category: Law

Page: 640

View: 5416

Includes an introduction to and analysis of the current crisis (54 pages), and the texts of several international legal documents related to the crisis in Syria (585 pages).
Posted in Law