Anthropology and Anthropologists

The Modern British School

Author: Adam Kuper

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136802207

Category: Social Science

Page: 248

View: 6803

On its first publication in 1973 Adam Kuper's entertaining history of half a century of British social anthropology provoked strong reactions. But his often irreverent account soon established itself as one of the introductions to anthropology. Since the second revised edition was published in 1983, important developments have occurred within British and European anthropology. This third, enlarged and updated edition responds to these fresh currents. Adam Kuper takes the story up to the present day, and a new final chapter traces the emergence of a modern European social anthropology in contrast with developments in American cultural anthropology over the last two decades. Anthropology and Anthropologists provides a critical historical account of modern British social anthropology: it describes the careers of the major theorists, their ideas and their contributions in the context of the intellectual and institutional environments in which they worked.
Posted in Social Science

Anthropology and Anthropologists

The Modern British School

Author: Adam Kuper

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136802215

Category: Social Science

Page: 248

View: 4629

On its first publication in 1973 Adam Kuper's entertaining history of half a century of British social anthropology provoked strong reactions. But his often irreverent account soon established itself as one of the introductions to anthropology. Since the second revised edition was published in 1983, important developments have occurred within British and European anthropology. This third, enlarged and updated edition responds to these fresh currents. Adam Kuper takes the story up to the present day, and a new final chapter traces the emergence of a modern European social anthropology in contrast with developments in American cultural anthropology over the last two decades. Anthropology and Anthropologists provides a critical historical account of modern British social anthropology: it describes the careers of the major theorists, their ideas and their contributions in the context of the intellectual and institutional environments in which they worked.
Posted in Social Science

Anthropology and Anthropologists

The Modern British School

Author: Adam Kuper

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9780710094094

Category: Anthropologists

Page: 228

View: 3376

On its first publication in 1973 Adam Kuper's entertaining history of half a century of British social anthropology provoked strong reactions. But his often irreverent account soon established itself as one of the introductions to anthropology.Since the second revised edition was published in 1983, important developments have occurred within British and European anthropology.This third, enlarged and updated edition responds to these fresh currents. Adam Kuper takes the story up to the present day, and a new final chapter traces the emergence of a modern European social anthropology in contrast with developments in American cultural anthropology over the last two decades.Anthropology and Anthropologists provides a critical historical account of modern British social anthropology: it describes the careers of the major theorists, their ideas and their contributions in the context of the intellectual and institutional environments in which they worked.
Posted in Anthropologists

Anthropology and Anthropologists

The British School in the Twentieth Century

Author: Adam Kuper

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317608364

Category: Social Science

Page: 152

View: 5266

Anthropology and Anthropologists provides an entertaining and provocative account of British social anthropology from the foundations of the discipline, through the glory years of the mid-twentieth century and on to the transformation in recent decades. The book shocked the anthropological establishment on first publication in 1973 but soon established itself as one of the introductions for students of anthropology. Forty years later, this now classic work has been radically revised. Adam Kuper situates the leading actors in their historical and institutional context, probes their rivalries, revisits their debates, and reviews their key ethnographies. Drawing on recent scholarship he shows how the discipline was shaped by the colonial setting and by developments in the social sciences.
Posted in Social Science

Culture

The Anthropologists' Account

Author: Adam Kuper

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674039810

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 8347

Suddenly culture seems to explain everything, from civil wars to financial crises and divorce rates. But when we speak of culture, what, precisely, do we mean? Adam Kuper pursues the concept of culture from the early twentieth century debates to its adoption by American social science under the tutelage of Talcott Parsons. What follows is the story of how the idea fared within American anthropology, the discipline that took on culture as its special subject. Here we see the influence of such prominent thinkers as Clifford Geertz, David Schneider, Marshall Sahlins, and their successors, who represent the mainstream of American cultural anthropology in the second half of the twentieth century--the leading tradition in world anthropology in our day. These anthropologists put the idea of culture to the ultimate test--in detailed, empirical ethnographic studies--and Kuper's account shows how the results raise more questions than they answer about the possibilities and validity of cultural analysis. Written with passion and wit, "Culture" clarifies a crucial chapter in recent intellectual history. Adam Kuper makes the case against cultural determinism and argues that political and economic forces, social institutions, and biological processes must take their place in any complete explanation of why people think and behave as they do.
Posted in Social Science

History and Theory in Anthropology

Author: Alan Barnard

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316101932

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 8058

Anthropology is a discipline very conscious of its history, and Alan Barnard has written a clear, balanced and judicious textbook that surveys the historical contexts of the great debates and traces the genealogies of theories and schools of thought. It also considers the problems involved in assessing these theories. The book covers the precursors of anthropology; evolutionism in all its guises; diffusionism and culture area theories, functionalism and structural-functionalism; action-centred theories; processual and Marxist perspectives; the many faces of relativism, structuralism and post-structuralism; and recent interpretive and postmodernist viewpoints.
Posted in Social Science

An Introduction to Theory in Anthropology

Author: Robert Layton

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521629829

Category: Social Science

Page: 241

View: 1248

In this innovative introduction, Robert Layton reviews the ideas that have inspired anthropologists in their studies of societies around the world. An Introduction to Theory in Anthropology provides a clear and concise analysis of the theories, and traces the way in which they have been translated into anthropological debates. The opening chapter sets out the classical theoretical issues formulated by Hobbes, Rousseau, Marx and Durkheim. Successive chapters discuss Functionalism, Structuralism, Interactionist theories, and Marxist anthropology, while the final chapters address the competing paradigms of Socioecology and Postmodernism. Using detailed case studies, Professor Layton illustrates the way in which various theoretical perspectives have shaped competing, or complementary, accounts of specific human societies.
Posted in Social Science

The Reinvention of Primitive Society

Transformations of a Myth

Author: Adam Kuper

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9780415357609

Category: Social Science

Page: 272

View: 9587

The Invention of Primitive Society, Adam Kuper's best selling critique of ideas about the origins of society and religion that have been much debated since Darwin, has been hugely influential in anthropology and post-colonial studies. This topical new edition, entitled The Reinvention of Primitive Society, has been thoroughly revised and updated to take account of new research in the field. It coincides with a revival of the myth of primitive society by the 'indigenous peoples' movement', which taps into a widespread popular belief about the noble savage and reflects a romantic reaction against 'civilisation' and 'science'. By way of fascinating accounts of classic texts in anthropology, classical studies and law, the book reveals how wholly mistaken theories can become the basis for academic research and political programmes. In new chapters, Kuper challenges this most recent version of the myth of primitive society and traces conceptions of the barbarian, savage and primitive back through the centuries to ancient Greece. Lucidly written and student friendly, this is the must-have text for those interested in anthropological theory and current post-colonial debates.
Posted in Social Science

Japanese Lessons

A Year in a Japanese School Through the Eyes of An American Anthropologist and Her Children

Author: Gail R. Benjamin

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814723403

Category: Social Science

Page: 272

View: 8168

Gail R. Benjamin reaches beyond predictable images of authoritarian Japanese educators and automaton schoolchildren to show the advantages and disadvantages of a system remarkably different from the American one... --The New York Times Book Review Americans regard the Japanese educational system and the lives of Japanese children with a mixture of awe and indignance. We respect a system that produces higher literacy rates and superior math skills, but we reject the excesses of a system that leaves children with little free time and few outlets for creativity and self-expression. In Japanese Lessons, Gail R. Benjamin recounts her experiences as a American parent with two children in a Japanese elementary school. An anthropologist, Benjamin successfully weds the roles of observer and parent, illuminating the strengths of the Japanese system and suggesting ways in which Americans might learn from it. With an anthropologist's keen eye, Benjamin takes us through a full year in a Japanese public elementary school, bringing us into the classroom with its comforting structure, lively participation, varied teaching styles, and non-authoritarian teachers. We follow the children on class trips and Sports Days and through the rigors of summer vacation homework. We share the experiences of her young son and daughter as they react to Japanese schools, friends, and teachers. Through Benjamin we learn what it means to be a mother in Japan--how minute details, such as the way mothers prepare lunches for children, reflect cultural understandings of family and education. Table of Contents Acknowledgments 1. Getting Started 2. Why Study Japanese Education? 3. Day-to-Day Routines 4. Together at School, Together in Life 5. A Working Vacation and Special Events 6. The Three R's, Japanese Style 7. The Rest of the Day 8. Nagging, Preaching, and Discussions 9. Enlisting Mothers' Efforts 10. Education in Japanese Society 11. Themes and Suggestions 12. Sayonara Appendix. Reading and Writing in Japanese References Index
Posted in Social Science

Anthropologists in the Stock Exchange

A Financial History of Victorian Science

Author: Marc Flandreau

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022636058X

Category: Social Science

Page: 416

View: 7956

Uncovering strange plots by early British anthropologists to use scientific status to manipulate the stock market, Anthropologists in the Stock Exchange tells a provocative story that marries the birth of the social sciences with the exploits of global finance. Marc Flandreau tracks a group of Victorian gentleman-swindlers as they shuffled between the corridors of the London Stock Exchange and the meeting rooms of learned society, showing that anthropological studies were integral to investment and speculation in foreign government debt, and, inversely, that finance played a crucial role in shaping the contours of human knowledge. Flandreau argues that finance and science were at the heart of a new brand of imperialism born during Benjamin Disraeli’s first term as Britain’s prime minister in the 1860s. As anthropologists advocated the study of Miskito Indians or stated their views on a Jamaican rebellion, they were in fact catering to the impulses of the stock exchange—for their own benefit. In this way the very development of the field of anthropology was deeply tied to issues relevant to the financial market—from trust to corruption. Moreover, this book shows how the interplay between anthropology and finance formed the foundational structures of late nineteenth-century British imperialism and helped produce essential technologies of globalization as we know it today.
Posted in Social Science

Key Debates in Anthropology

Author: Tim Ingold

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134748833

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 5309

Every year, leading social anthropologists meet to debate a motion at the heart of current theoretical developments in their subject and this book includes the first six of these debates, spanning the period from 1988 to 1993. Each debate has four principal speakers: one to propose the motion, another to oppose it, and two seconders. The first debate addresses the disciplinary character of social anthropology: can it be regarded as a science, and if so, is it able to establish general propositions about human culture and social life? The second examines the concept of society, and in the third debate the spotlight is turned on the role of culture in people's perception of their environments. The fourth debate focuses on the place of language in the formation of culture. The fifth takes up the question of how we view the past in relation to the present. Finally, in the sixth debate, the concern is with the cross-cultural applicability of the concept of aesthetics. With its unique debate format, Key Debates in Anthropology addresses issues that are currently at the top of the theoretical agenda, which register the pulse of contemporary thinking in social anthropology. It will be of value to students who are not only introduced to the different sides of every argument, but are challenged to join in and to develop informed positions of their own.
Posted in Social Science

Anthropology of Policy

Perspectives on Governance and Power

Author: Cris Shore,Susan Wright

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134827024

Category: Social Science

Page: 312

View: 6293

Arguing that policy has become an increasingly central concept and instrument in the organisation of contemporary societies and that it now impinges on all areas of life so that it is virtually impossible to ignore or escape its influence, this book argues that the study of policy leads straight into issues at the heart of anthropology.
Posted in Social Science

Anthropological Intelligence

The Deployment and Neglect of American Anthropology in the Second World War

Author: David H. Price

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822389126

Category: Social Science

Page: 394

View: 1046

By the time the United States officially entered World War II, more than half of American anthropologists were using their professional knowledge and skills to advance the war effort. The range of their war-related work was extraordinary. They helped gather military intelligence, pinpointed possible social weaknesses in enemy nations, and contributed to the army’s regional Pocket Guide booklets. They worked for dozens of government agencies, including the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) and the Office of War Information. At a moment when social scientists are once again being asked to assist in military and intelligence work, David H. Price examines anthropologists’ little-known contributions to the Second World War. Anthropological Intelligence is based on interviews with anthropologists as well as extensive archival research involving many Freedom of Information Act requests. Price looks at the role played by the two primary U.S. anthropological organizations, the American Anthropological Association and the Society for Applied Anthropology (which was formed in 1941), in facilitating the application of anthropological methods to the problems of war. He chronicles specific projects undertaken on behalf of government agencies, including an analysis of the social effects of postwar migration, the design and implementation of OSS counterinsurgency campaigns, and the study of Japanese social structures to help tailor American propaganda efforts. Price discusses anthropologists’ work in internment camps, their collection of intelligence in Central and South America for the FBI’s Special Intelligence Service, and their help forming foreign language programs to assist soldiers and intelligence agents. Evaluating the ethical implications of anthropological contributions to World War II, Price suggests that by the time the Cold War began, the profession had set a dangerous precedent regarding what it would be willing to do on behalf of the U.S. government.
Posted in Social Science

Military Anthropology

Soldiers, Scholars and Subjects at the Margins of Empire

Author: Montgomery McFate

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190934948

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 7705

In almost every military intervention in its history, the US has made cultural mistakes that hindered attainment of its policy goals. From the strategic bombing of Vietnam to the accidental burning of the Koran in Afghanistan, it has blundered around with little consideration of local cultural beliefs and for the long-term effects on the host nation's society. Cultural anthropology--the so-called "handmaiden of colonialism"--has historically served as an intellectual bridge between Western powers and local nationals. What light can it shed on the intersection of the US military and foreign societies today? This book tells the story of anthropologists who worked directly for the military, such as Ursula Graham Bower, the only woman to hold a British combat command during WWII. Each faced challenges including the negative outcomes of exporting Western political models and errors of perception. Ranging from the British colonial era in Africa to the recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, Military Anthropology illustrates the conceptual, cultural and practical barriers encountered by military organisations operating in societies vastly different from their own.
Posted in Social Science

One Discipline, Four Ways

British, German, French, and American Anthropology

Author: Fredrik Barth,Andre Gingrich,Robert Parkin,Sydel Silverman

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226038278

Category: Social Science

Page: 408

View: 646

One Discipline, Four Ways offers the first book-length introduction to the history of each of the four major traditions in anthropology—British, German, French, and American. The result of lectures given by distinguished anthropologists Fredrik Barth, Andre Gingrich, Robert Parkin, and Sydel Silverman to mark the foundation of the Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology, this volume not only traces the development of each tradition but considers their impact on one another and assesses their future potentials. Moving from E. B. Taylor all the way through the development of modern fieldwork, Barth reveals the repressive tendencies that prevented Britain from developing a variety of anthropological practices until the late 1960s. Gingrich, meanwhile, articulates the development of German anthropology, paying particular attention to the Nazi period, of which surprisingly little analysis has been offered until now. Parkin then assesses the French tradition and, in particular, its separation of theory and ethnographic practice. Finally, Silverman traces the formative influence of Franz Boas, the expansion of the discipline after World War II, and the "fault lines" and promises of contemporary anthropology in the United States.
Posted in Social Science

Using Anthropology in the World

A Guide to Becoming an Anthropologist Practitioner

Author: Riall W. Nolan

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1351856928

Category: Social Science

Page: 230

View: 784

Anthropologist practitioners work outside the confines of the university, putting their knowledge and skills to work on significant problems in a wide variety of different contexts. The demand for anthropologist practitioners is strong and growing; practice is in many ways the leading edge of anthropology today, and one of the most exciting aspects of the discipline. How can anthropology students prepare themselves to become practitioners? Specifically designed to help students, including those in more traditional training programs, prepare for a career in putting anthropology to work in the world, the book: - provides an introduction to the discipline of anthropology and an exploration of its role and contribution in today’s world; - outlines the shape of anthropological practice – what it is, how it developed historically, and what it looks like today; - describes how students of anthropology can prepare for a career in practice, with emphasis on the relationship between theory, method, and application; - includes short contributions from practitioners, writing on specific aspects of training, practice, and career planning; - sets out a framework for career planning, with specific and detailed discussions of finding and securing employment; - reviews some of the more salient challenges arising in the course of a practitioner career; and - concludes with a discussion of what the future of anthropological practice is likely to be. Using Anthropology in the World is essential reading for students interested in preparing themselves for the challenges and rewards of practice and application.
Posted in Social Science

Watching the English, Second Edition

The Hidden Rules of English Behavior Revised and Updated

Author: Kate Fox

Publisher: Nicholas Brealey

ISBN: 1857889177

Category: Travel

Page: 600

View: 9304

The international hit returns with even more wit and insight into the hidden rules that make England English.
Posted in Travel

The Invention of Primitive Society

Transformations of an Illusion

Author: Adam Kuper

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415009034

Category: Social Science

Page: 264

View: 5817

Both a critical history of anthropological theory and methods and a challenging essay in the sociology of science, The Invention of Primitive Society shows how anthropologists have tried to define the original form of human society.
Posted in Social Science

Of Two Minds

An Anthropologist Looks at American Psychiatry

Author: T.M. Luhrmann

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 0307791904

Category: Psychology

Page: 352

View: 7591

In this groundbreaking book, Tanya Luhrmann -- among the most admired of young American anthropologists -- brings her acute intelligence and her sophisticated powers of observation to bear on the world of psychiatry. On the basis of extensive interviews with patients and doctors, as well as day-to-day investigative fieldwork in residency programs, private psychiatric hospitals, and state hospitals, Luhrmann shows us how psychiatrists are trained, how they develop their particular way of seeing and listening to their patients, what makes a psychiatrist successful, and how the enormous ambiguities in the field affect its practitioners and patients. How do psychiatrists learn to do what they do? What is it like for psychiatrists to deal with people who are in emotional extremity? How does the choice between drug therapy and talk therapy, each of which requires very different skills, affect the way psychiatrists understand their patients? Boldly and with sharp insight, Luhrmann takes the reader into the world of young doctors in training. At a time when mood-altering drugs have revolutionized the treatment of the mentally ill and HMOs are forcing caregivers to take the pharmacological route, Luhrmann places us at the heart of the struggle -- do we treat people's brains or their minds? -- and allows us to see exactly what is at stake. From the Hardcover edition.
Posted in Psychology