Anthropology and Anthropologists

The British School in the Twentieth Century

Author: Adam Kuper

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317608364

Category: Social Science

Page: 152

View: 7863

Anthropology and Anthropologists provides an entertaining and provocative account of British social anthropology from the foundations of the discipline, through the glory years of the mid-twentieth century and on to the transformation in recent decades. The book shocked the anthropological establishment on first publication in 1973 but soon established itself as one of the introductions for students of anthropology. Forty years later, this now classic work has been radically revised. Adam Kuper situates the leading actors in their historical and institutional context, probes their rivalries, revisits their debates, and reviews their key ethnographies. Drawing on recent scholarship he shows how the discipline was shaped by the colonial setting and by developments in the social sciences.
Posted in Social Science

Anthropology and Anthropologists

The Modern British School

Author: Adam Kuper

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9780710094094

Category: Anthropologists

Page: 228

View: 8024

On its first publication in 1973 Adam Kuper's entertaining history of half a century of British social anthropology provoked strong reactions. But his often irreverent account soon established itself as one of the introductions to anthropology.Since the second revised edition was published in 1983, important developments have occurred within British and European anthropology.This third, enlarged and updated edition responds to these fresh currents. Adam Kuper takes the story up to the present day, and a new final chapter traces the emergence of a modern European social anthropology in contrast with developments in American cultural anthropology over the last two decades.Anthropology and Anthropologists provides a critical historical account of modern British social anthropology: it describes the careers of the major theorists, their ideas and their contributions in the context of the intellectual and institutional environments in which they worked.
Posted in Anthropologists

Bullshit Jobs

Vom wahren Sinn der Arbeit

Author: David Graeber

Publisher: Klett-Cotta

ISBN: 3608115064

Category: Political Science

Page: 560

View: 7574

Ein Bullshit-Job ist eine Beschäftigungsform, die so völlig sinnlos, unnötig oder schädlich ist, dass selbst der Arbeitnehmer ihre Existenz nicht rechtfertigen kann. Es geht also gerade nicht um Jobs, die niemand machen will, sondern um solche, die eigentlich niemand braucht. Im Zuge des technischen Fortschritts sind zahlreiche Arbeitsplätze durch Maschinen ersetzt worden. Trotzdem ist die durchschnittliche Arbeitszeit nicht etwa gesunken, sondern auf durchschnittlich 41,5 Wochenstunden gestiegen. Wie konnte es dazu kommen? David Graeber zeigt in seinem bahnbrechenden neuen Buch, warum immer mehr überflüssige Jobs entstehen und welche verheerenden Konsequenzen diese Entwicklung für unsere Gesellschaft hat. Im Jahr 1930 sagte der britische Ökonom John Maynard Keynes voraus, dass durch den technischen Fortschritt heute niemand mehr als 15 Stunden pro Woche arbeiten müsse. Fast ein Jahrhundert danach stellt David Graeber fest, dass die Gegenwart anders aussieht: Die durchschnittliche Arbeitszeit ist gestiegen und immer mehr Menschen üben Tätigkeiten aus, die unproduktiv und daher eigentlich überflüssig sind – als Immobilienmakler, Investmentbanker oder Unternehmensberater. Es sind Jobs, die keinen sinnvollen gesellschaftlichen Beitrag leisten. Es sind Bullshit-Jobs. Warum bezahlt eine Ökonomie solche Tätigkeiten, die sie nicht braucht? Wie ist es zu dieser Entwicklung gekommen? Und was können wir dagegen tun? David Graeber, einer der radikalsten politischen Denker unserer Zeit, geht diesem Phänomen auf den Grund. Ein packendes Plädoyer gegen die Ausweitung sinnloser Arbeit, die die moralischen Grundfesten unserer Gesellschaft ins Wanken bringt.
Posted in Political Science

The Routledge Dictionary of Anthropologists

Author: Gérald Gaillard

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415228251

Category: Social Science

Page: 394

View: 2585

This detailed and comprehensive guide provides biographical information on the most influential and significant figures in world anthropology, from the birth of the discipline in the nineteenth century to the present day. Each of the fifteen chapters focuses on a national tradition or school of thought, outlining its central features and placing the anthropologists within their intellectual contexts. Fully indexed and cross-referenced, The Routledge Dictionary of Anthropologists will prove indispensable for students of anthropology.
Posted in Social Science

Histories of American Physical Anthropology in the Twentieth Century

Author: Michael A. Little,Kenneth A. R. Kennedy

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9780739135112

Category: Science

Page: 259

View: 7143

Histories of American Physical Anthropology in the Twentieth Century chronicles the history of physical anthropology or, as it is now known, biological anthropology from its professional origins in the late 1800 up to its modern transformation in the late 1900s. In this edited volume, 13 contributors trace the development of people, ideas, traditions, and organizations that contributed to the advancement of this branch of anthropology that focuses today on human variation and human evolution. Designed for upper level undergraduate students, graduate students, and professional biological anthropologists, this book provides a brief and accessible history of the biobehavioral side of anthropology in America."
Posted in Science

Schulden

Die ersten 5000 Jahre

Author: David Graeber

Publisher: Klett-Cotta

ISBN: 3608103104

Category: Political Science

Page: 536

View: 1615

Ein radikales Buch im doppelten Wortsinn, denn Graeber packt das Problem der Schulden an der Wurzel, indem er bis zu ihren Anfängen in der Geschichte zurückgeht. Das führt ihn mitten hinein in die Krisenherde unserer Zeit: Von der Antike bis in die Gegenwart sind revolutionäre Bewegungen immer in Schuldenkrisen entstanden. Graeber sprengt die moralischen Fesseln, die uns auf das Prinzip der Schulden verpflichten. Denn diese Moral ist eine Waffe in der Hand der Mächtigen. Die weltweite Schuldenwirtschaft ist eine Bankrotterklärung der Ökonomie. Der Autor enttarnt Geld- und Kredittheorien als Mythen, die die Ökonomisierung aller sozialen Beziehungen vorantreiben. Im Kern ist dieses Buch ein hohes Lied auf die Freiheit: Das sumerische Wort »amargi«, das Synonym für Schuldenfreiheit, ist Graeber zufolge das erste Wort für Freiheit in menschlicher Sprache überhaupt. David Graeber ist einer der Begründer der Occupy-Bewegung.
Posted in Political Science

Nineteenth Century Religious Thought in the West

Author: Ninian Smart

Publisher: CUP Archive

ISBN: 9780521301145

Category: Religion

Page: 361

View: 697

The successful three volumes of Nineteenth Century Religious Thought in the West provide a fresh appraisal of the most important thinkers of that time. Soames essays centre on major figures of the period; others cover topics, trends and schools of thought between the French Revolution and the First World War.
Posted in Religion

The Manchester School

Practice and Ethnographic Praxis in Anthropology

Author: T. M. S. (Terry) Evens,Don Handelman

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 0857458582

Category: Social Science

Page: 348

View: 1803

Pioneered by Max Gluckman to demonstrate the way in which social practice and structure together constitute and are themselves constituted by the situational flow of social life, the extended case method became diagnostic of the Manchester School of Social Anthropology. Anticipating practice theory, and implicitly politically charged, it was developed as a tool to bring into account what orthodox structural functionalism was ill-equipped to address, namely, problems such as change, conflict, deviance, and individual choice. Edited by two students of Gluckman, the volume comprises reprinted pieces by Gluckman and his colleague Clyde Mitchell, a Coda by Mitchell's student, Bruce Kapferer, contributions by Gluckman's students and/or friends and colleagues, including Ronnie Frankenberg, Kapferer, Evens, Handelman, and Sally Falk Moore, as well as a number of contributions from other practitioners of the extended case. Apart from the reprinted pieces by Gluckman and Mitchell, all the contributions have been written for this volume. These essays, historical, theoretical, and ethnographical, serve to highlight and critically examine the fundamental features of the extended-case method, in order to advance its substantial, continuing merits.
Posted in Social Science

Readings for A History of Anthropological Theory

Author: Paul A. Erickson,Liam Donat Murphy

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 1442606568

Category: Social Science

Page: 601

View: 6119

This comprehensive anthology offers over 40 readings that are critical to the understanding of anthropological theory and the development of anthropology as an academic discipline. The fourth edition maintains a strong focus on the "four-field" roots of the discipline in North America but has been reorganized with a new section on twenty-first-century theory, including coverage of postcolonial and public anthropology. New key terms and introductions accompany each reading and a revamped glossary makes the book more student-friendly. Used on its own, or together with the overview text A History of Anthropological Theory, Fourth Edition, this anthology offers a flexible and unrivaled introduction to anthropological theory that reflects not only the history but also the changing nature of the discipline today. For additional resources, visit the "Teaching Theory" page at www.utpteachingculture.com.
Posted in Social Science

Culture

The Anthropologists' Account

Author: Adam Kuper

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780674004177

Category: Social Science

Page: 299

View: 976

Suddenly culture seems to explain everything, from civil wars to financial crises and divorce rates. But when we speak of culture, what, precisely, do we mean? Adam Kuper pursues the concept of culture from the early twentieth century debates to its adoption by American social science under the tutelage of Talcott Parsons. What follows is the story of how the idea fared within American anthropology, the discipline that took on culture as its special subject. Here we see the influence of such prominent thinkers as Clifford Geertz, David Schneider, Marshall Sahlins, and their successors, who represent the mainstream of American cultural anthropology in the second half of the twentieth century--the leading tradition in world anthropology in our day. These anthropologists put the idea of culture to the ultimate test--in detailed, empirical ethnographic studies--and Kuper's account shows how the results raise more questions than they answer about the possibilities and validity of cultural analysis. Written with passion and wit, Culture clarifies a crucial chapter in recent intellectual history. Adam Kuper makes the case against cultural determinism and argues that political and economic forces, social institutions, and biological processes must take their place in any complete explanation of why people think and behave as they do.
Posted in Social Science

Blood Relations

Menstruation and the Origins of Culture

Author: Chris Knight

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 030018655X

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 592

View: 607

The emergence of symbolic culture is generally linked with the development of the hunger-gatherer adaptation based on a sexual division of labor. This original and ingenious book presents a new theory of how this symbolic domain originated. Integrating perspectives of evolutionary biography and social anthropology within a Marxist framework, Chris Knight rejects the common assumption that human culture was a modified extension of primate behavior and argues instead that it was the product of an immense social, sexual, and political revolution initiated by women. Culture became established, says Knight, when evolving human females began to assert collective control over their own sexuality, refusing sex to all males except those who came to them with provisions. Women usually timed their ban on sexual relations with their periods of infertility while they were menstruating, and to the extent that their solidarity drew women together, these periods tended to occur in synchrony. The result was that every month with the onset of menstruation, sexual relations were ruptured in a collective, ritualistic way as the prelude to each successful hunting expedition. This ritual act was the means through which women motivated men not only to hunt but also to concentrate energies on bringing back the meat. Knight shows how this hypothesis sheds light on the roots of such cultural traditions as totemic rituals, incest and menstrual taboos, blood-sacrifice, and hunters’ atonement rites. Providing detailed ethnographic documentation, he also explains how Native American, Australian Aboriginal, and other magico-religious myths can be read as derivatives of the same symbolic logic.
Posted in Health & Fitness

Sociocultural Theory in Anthropology

A Short History

Author: Merwyn S. Garbarino

Publisher: Waveland Press

ISBN: 1478608714

Category: Social Science

Page: 114

View: 1340

This useful resource is designed to serve as a statement, in brief compass, of the major developments in anthropological theory rendered in a historical perspective. Intended as an organizing framework, this book presents all theoretical viewpoints fairly, concisely, and simply.
Posted in Social Science

The British Army, Manpower, and Society Into the Twenty-first Century

Author: Hew Strachan

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9780714680699

Category: Social Science

Page: 264

View: 850

These essays set the relationship between the Army and society in the context of the 20th century as a whole. They then consider the key areas of current controversy - the pressure on the Army caused by changes in society, the Army's "right to be different", race, homosexuality and gender.
Posted in Social Science

The Enigma of Max Gluckman

The Ethnographic Life of a "Luckyman" in Africa

Author: Robert J. Gordon

Publisher: U of Nebraska Press

ISBN: 0803290837

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 522

View: 2374

Introduction : the enigma of Max Gluckman -- Making the very model of a modern liberal -- London calling -- How the guinea pig burnt his own bridge -- Return to Oxford and intellectual ferment -- Landing and living in Livingi -- Mary, Max, and the Mongu masquerade -- Getting to grips with the Lozi -- Running the Rhodes-Livingstone Institute -- The seven year plan -- The African undertow
Posted in Biography & Autobiography

The Mass Observers

A History, 1937-1949

Author: James Hinton

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191650625

Category: History

Page: 424

View: 4166

This is the first full-scale history of Mass-Observation, the independent social research organisation which, between 1937 and 1949, set out to document the attitudes, opinions, and every-day lives of the British people. Through a combination of anthropological fieldwork, opinion surveys, and written testimony solicited from hundreds of volunteers, Mass-Observation created a huge archive of popular life during a tumultuous decade which remains central to British national identity. The social history of these years has been immeasurably enriched by the archive, and extracts from the writings of M-O's volunteers have won a wide and admiring audience. Now James Hinton, whose acclaimed Nine Wartime Lives demonstrated how the intensely personal writing of some of M-O's volunteers could be used to shed light on broader historical issues, has written a wonderfully vivid and evocative account which does justice not only to the two founders whose tempestuous relationship dominated the early years of Mass-Observation, but also to the dozens of creative and imaginative, and until now largely unknown, young enthusiasts whose work helped to keep the show on the road. The history of the organisation itself - the staff, the research methods, the struggle for funding, M-O's characteristic 'voice', and its role in the cultural and political life of the period - are themselves as interesting as any of the themes that the founders set out to document. This long-awaited and deeply researched history corrects and revises much of our existing knowledge of Mass-Observation, opens up new and important perspectives on the organisation, and will be seen as the authoritative account for years to come.
Posted in History

The Building of British Social Anthropology

W.H.R. Rivers and his Cambridge disciples in the development of kindship studies, 1898-1931

Author: Ian Langham,K. Langham,Jan Langham,Wilfried Brutsaert

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789027712646

Category: Gardening

Page: 392

View: 7739

Traces the influence of major anthropological figures on kinship studies; includes discussion of changing analyses of Australian Aboriginal kinship, marriage-class systems and totemism.
Posted in Gardening

The Rise of Anthropological Theory

A History of Theories of Culture

Author: Marvin Harris

Publisher: Rowman Altamira

ISBN: 9780759101333

Category: Social Science

Page: 806

View: 5596

The best known, most often cited history of anthropological theory is finally available in paperback! First published in 1968, Harris's book has been cited in over 1,000 works and is one of the key documents explaining cultural materialism, the theory associated with Harris's work. This updated edition included the complete 1968 text plus a new introduction by Maxine Margolis, which discusses the impact of the book and highlights some of the major trends in anthropological theory since its original publication. RAT, as it is affectionately known to three decades of graduate students, comprehensively traces the history of anthropology and anthropological theory, culminating in a strong argument for the use of a scientific, behaviorally-based, etic approach to the understanding of human culture known as cultural materialism. Despite its popularity and influence on anthropological thinking, RAT has never been available in paperback_until now. It is an essential volume for the library of all anthropologists, their graduate students, and other theorists in the social sciences.
Posted in Social Science

Imaginative Horizons

An Essay in Literary-Philosophical Anthropology

Author: Vincent Crapanzano

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226118758

Category: Social Science

Page: 280

View: 8616

How do people make sense of their experiences? How do they understand possibility? How do they limit possibility? These questions are central to all the human sciences. Here, Vincent Crapanzano offers a powerfully creative new way to think about human experience: the notion of imaginative horizons. For Crapanzano, imaginative horizons are the blurry boundaries that separate the here and now from what lies beyond, in time and space. These horizons, he argues, deeply influence both how we experience our lives and how we interpret those experiences, and here sets himself the task of exploring the roles that creativity and imagination play in our experience of the world.
Posted in Social Science

The Reinvention of Primitive Society

Transformations of a Myth

Author: Adam Kuper

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9780415357609

Category: Social Science

Page: 272

View: 3747

The Invention of Primitive Society, Adam Kuper's best selling critique of ideas about the origins of society and religion that have been much debated since Darwin, has been hugely influential in anthropology and post-colonial studies. This topical new edition, entitled The Reinvention of Primitive Society, has been thoroughly revised and updated to take account of new research in the field. It coincides with a revival of the myth of primitive society by the 'indigenous peoples' movement', which taps into a widespread popular belief about the noble savage and reflects a romantic reaction against 'civilisation' and 'science'. By way of fascinating accounts of classic texts in anthropology, classical studies and law, the book reveals how wholly mistaken theories can become the basis for academic research and political programmes. In new chapters, Kuper challenges this most recent version of the myth of primitive society and traces conceptions of the barbarian, savage and primitive back through the centuries to ancient Greece. Lucidly written and student friendly, this is the must-have text for those interested in anthropological theory and current post-colonial debates.
Posted in Social Science

Cambridge and the Torres Strait

Centenary Essays on the 1898 Anthropological Expedition

Author: Anita Herle,Sandra Rouse

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521584616

Category: Social Science

Page: 252

View: 9892

Centenary volume of the Torres Strait Expedition suggesting new ways of looking at its work.
Posted in Social Science