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## Advanced R

An Essential Reference for Intermediate and Advanced R Programmers Advanced R presents useful tools and techniques for attacking many types of R programming problems, helping you avoid mistakes and dead ends. With more than ten years of experience programming in R, the author illustrates the elegance, beauty, and flexibility at the heart of R. The book develops the necessary skills to produce quality code that can be used in a variety of circumstances. You will learn: The fundamentals of R, including standard data types and functions Functional programming as a useful framework for solving wide classes of problems The positives and negatives of metaprogramming How to write fast, memory-efficient code This book not only helps current R users become R programmers but also shows existing programmers what’s special about R. Intermediate R programmers can dive deeper into R and learn new strategies for solving diverse problems while programmers from other languages can learn the details of R and understand why R works the way it does.
## Extending R

Up-to-Date Guidance from One of the Foremost Members of the R Core Team Written by John M. Chambers, the leading developer of the original S software, Extending R covers key concepts and techniques in R to support analysis and research projects. It presents the core ideas of R, provides programming guidance for projects of all scales, and introduces new, valuable techniques that extend R. The book first describes the fundamental characteristics and background of R, giving readers a foundation for the remainder of the text. It next discusses topics relevant to programming with R, including the apparatus that supports extensions. The book then extends R’s data structures through object-oriented programming, which is the key technique for coping with complexity. The book also incorporates a new structure for interfaces applicable to a variety of languages. A reflection of what R is today, this guide explains how to design and organize extensions to R by correctly using objects, functions, and interfaces. It enables current and future users to add their own contributions and packages to R.
## Testing R Code

Learn how to write R code with fewer bugs. The problem with programming is that you are always one typo away from writing something silly. Likewise with data analysis, a small mistake in your model can lead to a big mistake in your results. Combining the two disciplines means that it is all too easy for a missed minus sign to generate a false prediction that you don’t spot until it’s too late. Testing is the only way to be sure that your code, and your results, are correct. Testing R Code teaches you how to perform development-time testing using the testthat package, allowing you to ensure that your code works as intended. The book also teaches run-time testing using the assertive package; enabling your users to correctly run your code. After beginning with an introduction to testing in R, the book explores more advanced cases such as integrating tests into R packages; testing code that accesses databases; testing C++ code with Rcpp; and testing graphics. Each topic is explained with real-world examples, and has accompanying exercises for readers to practise their skills — only a small amount of experience with R is needed to get started!
## R Markdown

R Markdown: The Definitive Guide is the first official book authored by the core R Markdown developers that provides a comprehensive and accurate reference to the R Markdown ecosystem. With R Markdown, you can easily create reproducible data analysis reports, presentations, dashboards, interactive applications, books, dissertations, websites, and journal articles, while enjoying the simplicity of Markdown and the great power of R and other languages. In this book, you will learn Basics: Syntax of Markdown and R code chunks, how to generate figures and tables, and how to use other computing languages Built-in output formats of R Markdown: PDF/HTML/Word/RTF/Markdown documents and ioslides/Slidy/Beamer/PowerPoint presentations Extensions and applications: Dashboards, Tufte handouts, xaringan/reveal.js presentations, websites, books, journal articles, and interactive tutorials Advanced topics: Parameterized reports, HTML widgets, document templates, custom output formats, and Shiny documents. Yihui Xie is a software engineer at RStudio. He has authored and co-authored several R packages, including knitr, rmarkdown, bookdown, blogdown, shiny, xaringan, and animation. He has published three other books, Dynamic Documents with R and knitr, bookdown: Authoring Books and Technical Documents with R Markdown, and blogdown: Creating Websites with R Markdown. J.J. Allaire is the founder of RStudio and the creator of the RStudio IDE. He is an author of several packages in the R Markdown ecosystem including rmarkdown, flexdashboard, learnr, and radix. Garrett Grolemund is the co-author of R for Data Science and author of Hands-On Programming with R. He wrote the lubridate R package and works for RStudio as an advocate who trains engineers to do data science with R and the Tidyverse.
## Advanced R

Program for data analysis using R and learn practical skills to make your work more efficient. This book covers how to automate running code and the creation of reports to share your results, as well as writing functions and packages. Advanced R is not designed to teach advanced R programming nor to teach the theory behind statistical procedures. Rather, it is designed to be a practical guide moving beyond merely using R to programming in R to automate tasks. This book will show you how to manipulate data in modern R structures and includes connecting R to data bases such as SQLite, PostgeSQL, and MongoDB. The book closes with a hands-on section to get R running in the cloud. Each chapter also includes a detailed bibliography with references to research articles and other resources that cover relevant conceptual and theoretical topics. What You Will Learn Write and document R functions Make an R package and share it via GitHub or privately Add tests to R code to insure it works as intended Build packages automatically with GitHub Use R to talk directly to databases and do complex data management Run R in the Amazon cloud Generate presentation-ready tables and reports using R Who This Book Is For Working professionals, researchers, or students who are familiar with R and basic statistical techniques such as linear regression and who want to learn how to take their R coding and programming to the next level.
## R Graphics, Second Edition

Extensively updated to reflect the evolution of statistics and computing, the second edition of the bestselling R Graphics comes complete with new packages and new examples. Paul Murrell, widely known as the leading expert on R graphics, has developed an in-depth resource that helps both neophyte and seasoned users master the intricacies of R graphics. New in the Second Edition Updated information on the core graphics engine, the traditional graphics system, the grid graphics system, and the lattice package A new chapter on the ggplot2 package New chapters on applications and extensions of R Graphics, including geographic maps, dynamic and interactive graphics, and node-and-edge graphs Organized into five parts, R Graphics covers both "traditional" and newer, R-specific graphics systems. The book reviews the graphics facilities of the R language and describes R’s powerful grid graphics system. It then covers the graphics engine, which represents a common set of fundamental graphics facilities, and provides a series of brief overviews of the major areas of application for R graphics and the major extensions of R graphics.
## Dynamic Documents with R and knitr, Second Edition

Quickly and Easily Write Dynamic Documents Suitable for both beginners and advanced users, Dynamic Documents with R and knitr, Second Edition makes writing statistical reports easier by integrating computing directly with reporting. Reports range from homework, projects, exams, books, blogs, and web pages to virtually any documents related to statistical graphics, computing, and data analysis. The book covers basic applications for beginners while guiding power users in understanding the extensibility of the knitr package. New to the Second Edition A new chapter that introduces R Markdown v2 Changes that reflect improvements in the knitr package New sections on generating tables, defining custom printing methods for objects in code chunks, the C/Fortran engines, the Stan engine, running engines in a persistent session, and starting a local server to serve dynamic documents Boost Your Productivity in Statistical Report Writing and Make Your Scientific Computing with R Reproducible Like its highly praised predecessor, this edition shows you how to improve your efficiency in writing reports. The book takes you from program output to publication-quality reports, helping you fine-tune every aspect of your report.
## Statistical Computing in C++ and R

With the advancement of statistical methodology inextricably linked to the use of computers, new methodological ideas must be translated into usable code and then numerically evaluated relative to competing procedures. In response to this, Statistical Computing in C++ and R concentrates on the writing of code rather than the development and study of numerical algorithms per se. The book discusses code development in C++ and R and the use of these symbiotic languages in unison. It emphasizes that each offers distinct features that, when used in tandem, can take code writing beyond what can be obtained from either language alone. The text begins with some basics of object-oriented languages, followed by a "boot-camp" on the use of C++ and R. The authors then discuss code development for the solution of specific computational problems that are relevant to statistics including optimization, numerical linear algebra, and random number generation. Later chapters introduce abstract data structures (ADTs) and parallel computing concepts. The appendices cover R and UNIX Shell programming. Features Includes numerous student exercises ranging from elementary to challenging Integrates both C++ and R for the solution of statistical computing problems Uses C++ code in R and R functions in C++ programs Provides downloadable programs, available from the authors’ website The translation of a mathematical problem into its computational analog (or analogs) is a skill that must be learned, like any other, by actively solving relevant problems. The text reveals the basic principles of algorithmic thinking essential to the modern statistician as well as the fundamental skill of communicating with a computer through the use of the computer languages C++ and R. The book lays the foundation for original code development in a research environment.
## Statistical Computing with R

Computational statistics and statistical computing are two areas that employ computational, graphical, and numerical approaches to solve statistical problems, making the versatile R language an ideal computing environment for these fields. One of the first books on these topics to feature R, Statistical Computing with R covers the traditional core material of computational statistics, with an emphasis on using the R language via an examples-based approach. Suitable for an introductory course in computational statistics or for self-study, it includes R code for all examples and R notes to help explain the R programming concepts. After an overview of computational statistics and an introduction to the R computing environment, the book reviews some basic concepts in probability and classical statistical inference. Each subsequent chapter explores a specific topic in computational statistics. These chapters cover the simulation of random variables from probability distributions, the visualization of multivariate data, Monte Carlo integration and variance reduction methods, Monte Carlo methods in inference, bootstrap and jackknife, permutation tests, Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, and density estimation. The final chapter presents a selection of examples that illustrate the application of numerical methods using R functions. Focusing on implementation rather than theory, this text serves as a balanced, accessible introduction to computational statistics and statistical computing.
## Computational Actuarial Science with R

A Hands-On Approach to Understanding and Using Actuarial Models Computational Actuarial Science with R provides an introduction to the computational aspects of actuarial science. Using simple R code, the book helps you understand the algorithms involved in actuarial computations. It also covers more advanced topics, such as parallel computing and C/C++ embedded codes. After an introduction to the R language, the book is divided into four parts. The first one addresses methodology and statistical modeling issues. The second part discusses the computational facets of life insurance, including life contingencies calculations and prospective life tables. Focusing on finance from an actuarial perspective, the next part presents techniques for modeling stock prices, nonlinear time series, yield curves, interest rates, and portfolio optimization. The last part explains how to use R to deal with computational issues of nonlife insurance. Taking a do-it-yourself approach to understanding algorithms, this book demystifies the computational aspects of actuarial science. It shows that even complex computations can usually be done without too much trouble. Datasets used in the text are available in an R package (CASdatasets).
## Introduction to Scientific Programming and Simulation Using R, Second Edition

Learn How to Program Stochastic Models Highly recommended, the best-selling first edition of Introduction to Scientific Programming and Simulation Using R was lauded as an excellent, easy-to-read introduction with extensive examples and exercises. This second edition continues to introduce scientific programming and stochastic modelling in a clear, practical, and thorough way. Readers learn programming by experimenting with the provided R code and data. The book’s four parts teach: Core knowledge of R and programming concepts How to think about mathematics from a numerical point of view, including the application of these concepts to root finding, numerical integration, and optimisation Essentials of probability, random variables, and expectation required to understand simulation Stochastic modelling and simulation, including random number generation and Monte Carlo integration In a new chapter on systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), the authors cover the Euler, midpoint, and fourth-order Runge-Kutta (RK4) schemes for solving systems of first-order ODEs. They compare the numerical efficiency of the different schemes experimentally and show how to improve the RK4 scheme by using an adaptive step size. Another new chapter focuses on both discrete- and continuous-time Markov chains. It describes transition and rate matrices, classification of states, limiting behaviour, Kolmogorov forward and backward equations, finite absorbing chains, and expected hitting times. It also presents methods for simulating discrete- and continuous-time chains as well as techniques for defining the state space, including lumping states and supplementary variables. Building readers’ statistical intuition, Introduction to Scientific Programming and Simulation Using R, Second Edition shows how to turn algorithms into code. It is designed for those who want to make tools, not just use them. The code and data are available for download from CRAN.
## bookdown

bookdown: Authoring Books and Technical Documents with R Markdown presents a much easier way to write books and technical publications than traditional tools such as LaTeX and Word. The bookdown package inherits the simplicity of syntax and flexibility for data analysis from R Markdown, and extends R Markdown for technical writing, so that you can make better use of document elements such as figures, tables, equations, theorems, citations, and references. Similar to LaTeX, you can number and cross-reference these elements with bookdown. Your document can even include live examples so readers can interact with them while reading the book. The book can be rendered to multiple output formats, including LaTeX/PDF, HTML, EPUB, and Word, thus making it easy to put your documents online. The style and theme of these output formats can be customized. We used books and R primarily for examples in this book, but bookdown is not only for books or R. Most features introduced in this book also apply to other types of publications: journal papers, reports, dissertations, course handouts, study notes, and even novels. You do not have to use R, either. Other choices of computing languages include Python, C, C++, SQL, Bash, Stan, JavaScript, and so on, although R is best supported. You can also leave out computing, for example, to write a fiction. This book itself is an example of publishing with bookdown and R Markdown, and its source is fully available on GitHub.
## R Packages

Turn your R code into packages that others can easily download and use. This practical book shows you how to bundle reusable R functions, sample data, and documentation together by applying author Hadley Wickham’s package development philosophy. In the process, you’ll work with devtools, roxygen, and testthat, a set of R packages that automate common development tasks. Devtools encapsulates best practices that Hadley has learned from years of working with this programming language. Ideal for developers, data scientists, and programmers with various backgrounds, this book starts you with the basics and shows you how to improve your package writing over time. You’ll learn to focus on what you want your package to do, rather than think about package structure. Learn about the most useful components of an R package, including vignettes and unit tests Automate anything you can, taking advantage of the years of development experience embodied in devtools Get tips on good style, such as organizing functions into files Streamline your development process with devtools Learn the best way to submit your package to the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN) Learn from a well-respected member of the R community who created 30 R packages, including ggplot2, dplyr, and tidyr
## Graphical Data Analysis with R

See How Graphics Reveal Information Graphical Data Analysis with R shows you what information you can gain from graphical displays. The book focuses on why you draw graphics to display data and which graphics to draw (and uses R to do so). All the datasets are available in R or one of its packages and the R code is available at rosuda.org/GDA. Graphical data analysis is useful for data cleaning, exploring data structure, detecting outliers and unusual groups, identifying trends and clusters, spotting local patterns, evaluating modelling output, and presenting results. This book guides you in choosing graphics and understanding what information you can glean from them. It can be used as a primary text in a graphical data analysis course or as a supplement in a statistics course. Colour graphics are used throughout.
## Data Science in R

Effectively Access, Transform, Manipulate, Visualize, and Reason about Data and Computation Data Science in R: A Case Studies Approach to Computational Reasoning and Problem Solving illustrates the details involved in solving real computational problems encountered in data analysis. It reveals the dynamic and iterative process by which data analysts approach a problem and reason about different ways of implementing solutions. The book’s collection of projects, comprehensive sample solutions, and follow-up exercises encompass practical topics pertaining to data processing, including: Non-standard, complex data formats, such as robot logs and email messages Text processing and regular expressions Newer technologies, such as Web scraping, Web services, Keyhole Markup Language (KML), and Google Earth Statistical methods, such as classification trees, k-nearest neighbors, and naïve Bayes Visualization and exploratory data analysis Relational databases and Structured Query Language (SQL) Simulation Algorithm implementation Large data and efficiency Suitable for self-study or as supplementary reading in a statistical computing course, the book enables instructors to incorporate interesting problems into their courses so that students gain valuable experience and data science skills. Students learn how to acquire and work with unstructured or semistructured data as well as how to narrow down and carefully frame the questions of interest about the data. Blending computational details with statistical and data analysis concepts, this book provides readers with an understanding of how professional data scientists think about daily computational tasks. It will improve readers’ computational reasoning of real-world data analyses.
## Basics of Matrix Algebra for Statistics with R

A Thorough Guide to Elementary Matrix Algebra and Implementation in R Basics of Matrix Algebra for Statistics with R provides a guide to elementary matrix algebra sufficient for undertaking specialized courses, such as multivariate data analysis and linear models. It also covers advanced topics, such as generalized inverses of singular and rectangular matrices and manipulation of partitioned matrices, for those who want to delve deeper into the subject. The book introduces the definition of a matrix and the basic rules of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and inversion. Later topics include determinants, calculation of eigenvectors and eigenvalues, and differentiation of linear and quadratic forms with respect to vectors. The text explores how these concepts arise in statistical techniques, including principal component analysis, canonical correlation analysis, and linear modeling. In addition to the algebraic manipulation of matrices, the book presents numerical examples that illustrate how to perform calculations by hand and using R. Many theoretical and numerical exercises of varying levels of difficulty aid readers in assessing their knowledge of the material. Outline solutions at the back of the book enable readers to verify the techniques required and obtain numerical answers. Avoiding vector spaces and other advanced mathematics, this book shows how to manipulate matrices and perform numerical calculations in R. It prepares readers for higher-level and specialized studies in statistics.
## Metaprogramming in R

Learn how to manipulate functions and expressions to modify how the R language interprets itself. This book is an introduction to metaprogramming in the R language, so you will write programs to manipulate other programs. Metaprogramming in R shows you how to treat code as data that you can generate, analyze, or modify. R is a very high-level language where all operations are functions and all functions are data that can be manipulated. This book shows you how to leverage R's natural flexibility in how function calls and expressions are evaluated, to create small domain-specific languages to extend R within the R language itself. What You'll Learn Find out about the anatomy of a function in R Look inside a function call Work with R expressions and environments Manipulate expressions in R Use substitutions Who This Book Is For Those with at least some experience with R and certainly for those with experience in other programming languages.
## Reproducible Research with R and R Studio, Second Edition

All the Tools for Gathering and Analyzing Data and Presenting Results Reproducible Research with R and RStudio, Second Edition brings together the skills and tools needed for doing and presenting computational research. Using straightforward examples, the book takes you through an entire reproducible research workflow. This practical workflow enables you to gather and analyze data as well as dynamically present results in print and on the web. New to the Second Edition The rmarkdown package that allows you to create reproducible research documents in PDF, HTML, and Microsoft Word formats using the simple and intuitive Markdown syntax Improvements to RStudio’s interface and capabilities, such as its new tools for handling R Markdown documents Expanded knitr R code chunk capabilities The kable function in the knitr package and the texreg package for dynamically creating tables to present your data and statistical results An improved discussion of file organization, enabling you to take full advantage of relative file paths so that your documents are more easily reproducible across computers and systems The dplyr, magrittr, and tidyr packages for fast data manipulation Numerous modifications to R syntax in user-created packages Changes to GitHub’s and Dropbox’s interfaces Create Dynamic and Highly Reproducible Research This updated book provides all the tools to combine your research with the presentation of your findings. It saves you time searching for information so that you can spend more time actually addressing your research questions. Supplementary files used for the examples and a reproducible research project are available on the author’s website.
## Using R for Introductory Statistics, Second Edition

The second edition of a bestselling textbook, Using R for Introductory Statistics guides students through the basics of R, helping them overcome the sometimes steep learning curve. The author does this by breaking the material down into small, task-oriented steps. The second edition maintains the features that made the first edition so popular, while updating data, examples, and changes to R in line with the current version. See What’s New in the Second Edition: Increased emphasis on more idiomatic R provides a grounding in the functionality of base R. Discussions of the use of RStudio helps new R users avoid as many pitfalls as possible. Use of knitr package makes code easier to read and therefore easier to reason about. Additional information on computer-intensive approaches motivates the traditional approach. Updated examples and data make the information current and topical. The book has an accompanying package, UsingR, available from CRAN, R’s repository of user-contributed packages. The package contains the data sets mentioned in the text (data(package="UsingR")), answers to selected problems (answers()), a few demonstrations (demo()), the errata (errata()), and sample code from the text. The topics of this text line up closely with traditional teaching progression; however, the book also highlights computer-intensive approaches to motivate the more traditional approach. The authors emphasize realistic data and examples and rely on visualization techniques to gather insight. They introduce statistics and R seamlessly, giving students the tools they need to use R and the information they need to navigate the sometimes complex world of statistical computing.

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