A Philosophical History of Rights

Author: Gary Herbert

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351534696

Category: Philosophy

Page: 362

View: 7260

Since the seventeenth century, concern in the Western world for the welfare of the individual has been articulated philosophically most often as a concern for his rights. The modern conception of individual rights resulted from abandonment of ancient, value-laced ideas of nature and their replacement by the modern, mathematically transparent idea of nature that has room only for individuals, often in conflict. In A Philosophical History of Rights, Gary B. Herbert traces the historical evolution of the concept and the transformation of the problems through which the concept is defined. The volume examines the early history of rights as they existed in ancient Greece, and locates the first philosophical inquiry into the nature of rights in Platonic and Aristotelian accounts. He traces Roman jurisprudence to the advent of Christianity, to the divine right of kings. Herbert follows the historical evolution of modern subjective rights, the attempts by Locke, Rousseau, Kant, Fichte, and Hegel to mediate rights, to make them sociable. He then turns to nineteenth-century condemnation of rights in the theories of the historical school of law, Benthamite utilitarianism, and Marxist socialism. Following World War II, a newly revived language of rights had to be constructed, to express universal moral outrage over what came to be called crimes against humanity. The contemporary Western concern for rights is today a concern for the individual and a recognition of the limits beyond which a society must not go in sacrificing the individual's welfare for its own conception of the common good. In his conclusion, Herbert addresses the postmodern critique of rights as a form of moral imperialism legitimizing relations of dominance and subjection. In addition to his historical analysis of the evolution of theories of rights, Herbert exposes the philosophical confusions that arise when we exchange one concept of rights for another and continue to cite historical antecedents for contemporary attitudes that are in fact their philosophical antithesis. A Philosophical History of Rights will be of interest to philosophers, historians, and political scientists.
Posted in Philosophy

Denker des Abendlandes

eine Geschichte der Philosophie

Author: Bertrand Russell

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783868201277

Category:

Page: 430

View: 6167

Posted in

A Culture of Rights

The Bill of Rights in Philosophy, Politics and Law 1791 and 1991

Author: Michael James Lacey,Knud Haakonssen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521446532

Category: History

Page: 474

View: 8113

New insights into the rights thinking and consciousness at the core of American political culture.
Posted in History

Freedom and History and Other Essays

An Introduction to the Thought of Richard McKeon

Author: Richard Peter McKeon,Zahava K. McKeon

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226560298

Category: Philosophy

Page: 271

View: 5525

This volume of essays is an important introduction to the thought of one of the twentieth century's most significant yet underappreciated philosophers, Richard McKeon. The originator of philosophical pluralism, McKeon made extraordinary contributions to philosophy, to international relations, and to theory-formation in the communication arts, aesthetics, the organization of knowledge, and the practical sciences. This collection, which includes a philosophical autobiography as well as the out-of-print title essay "Freedom and History" and a previously unpublished essay on "Philosophic Semantics and Philosophic Inquiry," is a testimony to the range and systematic power of McKeon's thinking for the social sciences and the humanities.
Posted in Philosophy

A Philosophical History of German Sociology

Author: Frédéric Vandenberghe

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134027133

Category: Philosophy

Page: 352

View: 6259

A Philosophical History of German Sociology presents a systematic reconstruction of critical theory, from the founding fathers of sociology (Marx, Simmel, Weber) via Lukács to the Frankfurt School (Horkheimer, Adorno, Habermas). Through an in depth analysis of the theories of alienation, rationalisation and reification, it investigates the metatheoretical presuppositions of a critical theory of the present that not only highlights the reality of domination, but is also able to highlight the possibilities of emancipation. Although not written as a textbook, its clear and cogent introduction to some of the main theories of sociology make this book a valuable resource for undergraduates and postgraduates alike. The following in-depth investigation of theories of alienation and reification offer essential material for any critique of the dehumanizing tendencies of today’s global world. Recently translated into English from the original French for the first time, this text showcases Vandenberghe's mastery of the German, French and English schools of sociology study. The result is an important and challenging text that is essential reading for sociology students of all levels. Frédéric Vandenberghe is a Sociology professor and researcher at Iuperj (Instituto Universitário de Pesquisas do Rio de Janeiro), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. His writings on a broad range of sociological topics have been published as books and articles around the world.
Posted in Philosophy

The Self, Ethics & Human Rights

Author: Joseph Indaimo

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317805860

Category: Law

Page: 288

View: 6644

This book explores how the notion of human identity informs the ethical goal of justice in human rights. Within the modern discourse of human rights, the issue of identity has been largely neglected. However, within this discourse lies a conceptualisation of identity that was derived from a particular liberal philosophy about the ‘true nature’ of the isolated, self-determining and rational individual. Rights are thus conceived as something that are owned by each independent self, and that guarantee the exercise of its autonomy. Critically engaging this subject of rights, this book considers how recent shifts in the concept of identity and, more specifically, the critical humanist notion of ‘the other’, provides a basis for re-imagining the foundation of contemporary human rights. Drawing on the work of Jacques Lacan and Emmanuel Levinas, an inter-subjectivity between self and other ‘always already’ marks human identity with an ethical openness. And, this book argues, it is in the shift away from the human self as a ‘sovereign individual’ that human rights have come to reflect a self-identity that is grounded in the potential of an irreducible concern for the other.
Posted in Law

Hegel's 'Philosophy of Right'

A Reader's Guide

Author: David Rose

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 0826487114

Category: Philosophy

Page: 159

View: 6133

A comprehensive guide to Hegel's seminal text, the Philosophy of Right
Posted in Philosophy

Ascent to Freedom

Practical and Philosophical Foundations of Democratic World Law

Author: Glen T. Martin

Publisher: Inst for Economic Democracy

ISBN: N.A

Category: Law

Page: 500

View: 9962

Ascent to Freedom develops a philosophical framework for democratic world law by drawing on the scientific revolutions of the twentieth century, the history of philosophy of law, and contemporary discussions of law, democracy, and human rights. It traces the history of the philosophy of law from ancient times to the present, showing the progressive development of democratic thought that culminates in the imperative for global democracy. It examines the legitimacy of the dominant institutions in the contemporary world (monopoly capitalism and the nation-state system) and points beyond these destructive, fragmenting institutions to a holistic approach for human affairs. It concludes by developing the parameters and the likely consequences of a conversion to democratic world law for protecting the environment and human rights as well as creating a world system of peace and prosperity for everyone on Earth. Ascent to Freedom lays out both the practical and conceptual foundations for a transformed world order that can deal directly with our multiple global crises while creating peace and prosperity on Earth.
Posted in Law

Challenges in Human Rights

A Social Work Perspective

Author: Elisabeth Reichert

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231510349

Category: Social Science

Page: 296

View: 3828

By using human rights as a guidepost, social workers can help create social welfare policies that better serve societal needs. However, in applying human rights to contemporary situations, social workers often encounter challenges that require thinking outside the box. Bringing together provocative essays from a diverse range of authors, Elisabeth Reichert demonstrates how approaching social work from a human rights perspective can profoundly affect legislation, resource management, and enforcement of policies. Topics include the reconciliation of cultural relativism with universal human rights; the debate over whether human rights truly promote economic and social development or simply allow economically developed societies to exploit underdeveloped countries; the role of gender in the practice of human rights; the tendency to promote political and civil rights over economic and social rights; and the surprising connection between the social work and legal professions.
Posted in Social Science

Das Recht der Völker

Enthält: "Nochmals: Die Idee der öffentlichen Vernunft"

Author: John Rawls

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110898535

Category: Philosophy

Page: 294

View: 8995

Welche Bedingungen lassen Völker gerecht und friedlich zusammenleben? Unter welchen Umständen sind Kriege gerechtfertigt? Welche Leitlinien müssen gegeben sein für Organisationen, die eine gerechte Gesellschaft von Völkern mit gleichen Rechten herzustellen vermögen? In acht Grundsätzen für eine gerechte internationale Ordnung entwickelt der amerikanische Philosoph John Rawls einen hypothetischen "Vertrag der Gesellschaft der Völker". Das jüngste Buch von John Rawls ist nach A Theory of Justice 1971, dt. 1975) und Political Liberalism (1993, dt. 1998) ein weiteres wichtiges Werk des bedeutenden amerikanischen Philosophen. Die Originalausgabe (The Law of Peoples, 1999) hat zu heftigen Kontroversen geführt.
Posted in Philosophy

Eine kurze Geschichte der deutschen Philosophie

Rückblick auf den deutschen Geist

Author: Vittorio Hösle

Publisher: C.H.Beck

ISBN: 3406648657

Category: Philosophy

Page: 320

View: 3141

Vittorio Hösle bietet in diesem Buch eine Übersicht über die deutsche Philosophiegeschichte vom Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart. Er beginnt mit einer Erörterung der Frage, inwieweit es überhaupt legitim ist, den Gang der deutschen Philosophiegeschichte von den restlichen europäischen Philosophiegeschichten abzusondern, und endet mit verhaltener Skepsis hinsichtlich des Überlebens deutscher Philosophie im 21. Jahrhundert. Der Sonderweg deutscher Philosophie beginnt im Mittelalter mit Meister Eckhart und Nicolaus Cusanus. Eine neue Pointierung wird durch die Reformation gewiesen, die gerade wegen ihrer antiphilosophischen Polemik einen Neubeginn des Denkens ermöglicht und die für Deutschland so charakteristische Verbindung von Philosophie und Philologie hervorbringt. Leibniz, Kant und die Fundierung der Geisteswissenschaften im späten 18. Jahrhundert sind Voraussetzungen der Synthese des Deutschen Idealismus, auf die mit Schopenhauer, Feuerbach, Marx und Nietzsche eine rasche Auflösung des Christentums ebenso wie der bisherigen Vernunftmetaphysik folgt. Die Neubegründungen der Philosophie bei Frege und im Logischen Positivismus, bei den Neukantianern und in der Phänomenologie Husserls werden als die wirkungsmächtigsten Versuche des frühen 20. Jahrhunderts dargestellt; auf sie folgt die Philosophie des Nationalsozialismus (Martin Heidegger, Arnold Gehlen, Carl Schmitt) und schließlich diejenige der Bundesrepublik (Hans-Georg Gadamer, Karl-Otto Apel, Jürgen Habermas und Hans Jonas). Das Buch ist eine auf gründlicher Kenntnis der Primärquellen beruhende Gesamtinterpretation der deutschen Philosophie. Zugleich versteht es sich als Rückblick auf den «deutschen Geist».
Posted in Philosophy

The Concept of Human Rights in Africa

Author: Issa G. Shivji

Publisher: African Books Collective

ISBN: 1870784022

Category: Philosophy

Page: 126

View: 9315

1 The dominant discourse
Posted in Philosophy

Das Selbstbestimmungsrecht der Völker

die Domestizierung einer Illusion

Author: Jörg Fisch

Publisher: C.H.Beck

ISBN: 9783406598586

Category: International law

Page: 384

View: 4902

Die Idee eines Selbstbestimmungsrechts der Völker besagt, dass Völker das Recht haben, einen Staat zu bilden, und selbst darüber entscheiden können, ob sie dieses Recht wahrnehmen oder nicht. Die erste Gesamtdarstellung seiner Geschichte zeigt, wie es den Totengräber für die europäischen Kolonialreiche und andere Imperien gespielt hat und seit 1989 auf der Suche nach neuen Betätigungsfeldern ist. Entstanden aus dem Nationalismus und dem Antikolonialismus, erhebt das Selbstbestimmungsrecht der Völker den Anspruch, die internationalen Beziehungen auf eine herrschaftsfreie Grundlage zu stellen. Sprengstoff beinhaltet vor allem das damit verbundene Sezessionsrecht. Denn wer bestimmt, was ein Volk ist? Die Idee kollidiert hier schnell mit den machtpolitischen Realitäten und erweist sich als eine gefährliche, zum Missbrauch geradezu einladende Illusion, mit deren Domestizierung das Völkerrecht bis heute beschäftigt ist. Denn nicht nur Adolf Hitler verstand es meisterhaft, das Konzept für seine Zwecke zu instrumentalisieren. In einer souveränen Kombination von Begriffs-, Politik- und Kulturgeschichte durchmisst Jörg Fisch die Weltgeschichte und liefert eine anschaulich und prägnant geschriebene Darstellung dieser vom 19. Jahrhundert bis in die Gegenwart äußerst wirkmächtigen Idee.
Posted in International law

History and Illusion in Politics

Author: Raymond Geuss

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521000437

Category: Philosophy

Page: 175

View: 2282

In his new book, distinguished political philosopher Raymond Geuss critically examines some of the most widely held and important preconceptions about contemporary politics western societies: the state, authority, violence and coercion, the concept of legitimacy, liberalism, toleration, freedom, democracy, and human rights. Geuss argues that the liberal democratic state committed to the defense of human rights is in fact a confused conjunction of disparate elements. One of his most striking claims is that it makes sense to speak of rights only relative to a mechanism for enforcing them, and that therefore the whole concept of a "human right" as it is commonly used in contemporary political philosophy, is a confusion. A profound and concise essay on the basic structure of contemporary politics, History and Illusion in Politics is written in a voice that is skeptical, engaged, and clear. Raymond Geuss is University Lecturer, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Cambridge. Educated in the United States and Germany, he has held academic posts at Heidelberg, the University of Chicago and Princeton University. He is the editor of Nietzsche The Birth of Tragedy (Cambridge, 1999) and the author of Public Goods, Private Goods (Princeton, 2001). He is a frequent commentator on BBC Radio Three and World Service.
Posted in Philosophy

Philosophy of Right

Author: Georg H. W. Hegel,Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Publisher: Cosimo, Inc.

ISBN: 1605204242

Category: Philosophy

Page: 276

View: 6299

Considered by some the best introduction to and explication of the thought of German Idealist philosopher GEORG WILHELM FRIEDRICH HEGEL (17701831), this 1896 translation by SAMUEL WATERS DYDE (b. 1862) of the philosophers great 1821 work offers a succinct but comprehensive discussion of concepts of free will. A philosophical disciple of Kant, Hegel saw that free will could exist only within the larger context of human life: of family, of work, of legality and moralityhuman freedom, Hegel believed could not exist in a vacuum but only via an individuals interactions with the social networks of humanity. Hegels understanding of the individuals impact on such grand canvases as history itself exerted an unparalleled influence on German philosophy throughout the 19th century, including upon Karl Marx and his Communist Manifesto. Philosophy of Right, then, deserves a place in the essential library of anyone wishing to understand modern political thinking.
Posted in Philosophy

Philosophy of Human Rights

Readings in Context

Author: Patrick Hayden

Publisher: Paragon House

ISBN: N.A

Category: Philosophy

Page: 722

View: 9335

The Philosophy of Human Rights brings together an extensive collection of classical and contemporary writings on the topic of human rights, including genocide, ethnic cleansing, minority cultures, gay and lesbian rights, and the environment, providing an exceptionally comprehensive introduction. Sources include authors such as Aristotle, Cicero, Thomas Aquinas, Confucius, Hobbes, Locke, rant. Marx, Gandhi. Hart, Feinberg, Nussbaum, the Dalai Lama, Derrida, Lyocard and Rorty. Ideal for courses in human rights, social theory, ethical theory, and political science, each reading; begins with a brief introduction, and is followed with study questions and suggested further readings.
Posted in Philosophy