Author: Peter Hansell,Jean Hansell
A lmost a quarter of a century ago a new dictionary bearing the name American Heritage appeared. That book was notable because it did four things and it did them well. It faithfully recorded the language in easily understood definitions. It provided guidance toward accuracy, precision, and grace in the use of English that intelligent people need and seek in a dictionary. It traced, whenever possible, the development of English words to their origins and keyed many to an Appendix of Indo-European Roots. And it presented complex lexical data in a typographically attractive design accented by thousands of photographs and line drawings in spacious margins. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Third Edition , builds upon this distinguished, innovative foundation. The pages of the Third Edition, a lexicon of more than 200,000 boldface forms, hundreds of thousands of meanings, and nearly 4,000 pieces of art, reflect the rich and varied texture of American English as it has been used over time by a broad group of educated speakers. This Dictionary is the product of four years of work by 175 contributors. In preparing the Dictionary, our editors have had access to a database containing hundreds of millions of lines of text that could be searched for any word in context. The A-Z vocabulary, containing more than 16,000 words and meanings new to this Edition, is a comprehensive, detailed record of the language. Use of citations allowed the editors to identify new words and new meanings, identify levels of usage, and select more than 4,000 quoted illustrations from nearly 2,000 sources for use in exemplifying entry words in printed context. The quoted illustrations range from the works of Shakespeare, Pope, and Ruskin to the works of contemporary writers such as Joyce Carol Oates, Joan Didion, John Updike, and Tom Wicker. More than 30,000 nonquoted illustrative examples were also derived from study of the citations. Finally, the citations were used to determine the status of variants. For example, 4,000 electronic citations were accrued for the spelling ambiance and about 2,000 were found for the variant ambience . On the basis of this 2:1 ratio the Dictionary gives ambience as an "unequal," or less frequently occurring, variant of the entry word ambiance . If language is a reflection of the ethos of the generation speaking it, then the new entries and meanings in this Edition have much to say about us and our time. The great majority of the new words relate to social and life patterns; to the life sciences with an emphasis on health, medicine, genetics, and ecology; and to the physical sciences with an emphasis on computer technology and electronics, physics, and astronomy. The goal of the Third Edition is to provide the user with comprehension and appreciation of the language in a readable manner. Keeping the needs of the contemporary user in mind, we have presented the central and often the most frequently sought meaning of a word first. The definitions are worded in concise, lucid prose without the specialized terms and abbreviations that make most dictionaries forbidding and confusing. The Third Edition contains more than 500 notes and comments on matters of grammar, diction, pronunciation, and levels and nuances of usage. Citations were used in identifying new and evolving usage problems, attesting and evaluating the currency of certain usages, studying various levels of usage, and evaluating their sociolinguistic implications. The 173-member Usage Panel, with 75 new members and chaired by Geoffrey Nunberg, a linguist associated with Stanford University, has made an important contribution to the content and direction of the Usage Notes through responses to periodic surveys developed by the Chair and the editors. The Usage Panel of the Third Edition consists chiefly of writers, editors, and scholars, 22 of whom are professors of linguistics or English. Other Panelists occupy distinguished positions in law, diplomacy, government, business, science and technology, medicine, and the arts. Eighteen are recipients of the Pulitzer Prize and one is a Nobel Laureate. These men and women, who reside in 28 states across the land and in Canada and England, are a cross section of today's critical, literary, and scholarly community. A list of usage issues—old and new—was prepared by the Chair and the editors, and from it the usage program for the Third Edition was developed. Some of the usage issues are entirely new. An example is the Note at world-class . Other issues discussed in previous editions were resurveyed. An example is the use of contact as a verb. In some instances the Panel's views are more conservative than in the past: only 27 percent of the current Panel accepts hopefully as a sentence adverb, a usage that in 1969 was acceptable to 44 percent of the Panel. Other Notes, such as the one that discusses the use of above as a noun, present guidance and linguistic analysis without Panel opinions. The Usage Notes are not confined solely to matters of stylistic excellence. Our concern with usage extends to issues of gender, ethnicity, and sexual preference. Considerable attention is devoted in this Edition to the history of words. The etymologies have been thoroughly revised and expanded by a group of 25 specialists whose work reflects original scholarly research in many fields, including African, Persian, Turkish, and Native American languages. Special symbols, abbreviations, and complex technical vocabulary have been avoided in the etymologies. More than 400 word history paragraphs, most of which contain dates of first occurrence of the words in English, appear at entries with especially interesting etymologies. These word histories, such as the one at nerd , provide a social, historical, and cultural context for the evolution of words and explain the various linguistic processes that contribute to the development of language. A great many Modern English words can be traced to the reconstructed ancestral language called Proto-Indo-European. The etymologies in the Third Edition, like those in the First, trace many words to their earliest ascertainable origins, usually in Proto-Indo-European, by means of cross-references to a new and thoroughly revised Appendix of Indo-European Roots. The Appendix, in a major departure from previous style, gives the root followed by a brief gloss and a list of some of the Modern English words derived from it. The individual roots entry then follows. For example, the Modern English words fierce , and treacle , at first glance strange semantic companions, both derive from the root *ghwer- , "wild." The Third Edition contains hundreds of labeled words and meanings whose occurrence is restricted to certain areas of the United States. An important new feature unique to the Third Edition is the inclusion of more than 100 Regional Notes that explore the various linguistic and historical processes contributing to the development of these terms. These processes are apparent in the Regional Notes at entries such as absquatulate . In an effort to assist the reader in using the language with color, vitality, and freshness, the Third Edition devotes more attention than ever before to synonymy by including more than 900 synonym paragraphs. The fully cross-referenced synonym paragraphs are of two kinds. The first, liberally illustrated with quotations, discriminates shades of meaning. The second kind lists exact synonyms, that is, words sharing a common irreducible element of meaning, and provides antonyms when applicable. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Third Edition , like the First, is the product of significant advances in the use of computer technology. The Third Edition is derived from a complex, highly versatile structured database. Every element in the Dictionary was parsed, examined, and coded to reflect its lexical function and position within the base. In combination, these elements form dictionary entries, and on a broader scale they reflect a multitude of relationships across the lexicon. Use of the database in connection with electronically generated citations places the Third Edition a generation ahead of other dictionaries. It is no longer possible for a few general editors working strictly within a publishing house to compile a true and accurate record of the language as it is used today. Semantic, etymological, linguistic, and technical complexities inherent in the language require the counsel of specialists from many disciplines. These specialists' names are listed under Special Contributors and Consultants. We wish to thank all of them for helping us in our pursuit of accuracy and truth. Special thanks go to John Simpson, Co-Editor of the New Oxford English Dictionary , for valuable comments made during the early stages of the project. And to all members of the Editorial Staff who gave unstintingly of their time and expended great effort in the development of the Third Edition, we express our deepest gratitude. Anne H. Soukhanov EDITORIAL AND PRODUCTION STAFF EDITORIAL STAFF E XECUTIVE E DITOR Anne H. Soukhanov S ENIOR L EXICOGRAPHER David A. Jost S ENIOR C OORDINATING E DITOR Kaethe Ellis M ANAGING E DITOR Marion Severynse V ICE P RESIDENT AND D IRECTOR OF E DITORIAL , A RT , P RODUCTION , AND M ANUFACTURING S ERVICES Margery S. Berube P UBLISHER Jonathan P. Latimer S ENIOR E DITORS Joseph P. Pickett, David R. Pritchard, David M. Weeks E DITOR Joseph M. Patwell A SSOCIATE E DITORS Jim A. Craig, Donna Cremans, Paul G. Evenson, Susan M. Innes, Nina Judith Katz, James P. Marciano, Martha Fairman Phelps, Rosemary E. Previte, Hanna Schonthal A SSISTANT E DITORS Michael H. Choi, Ann-Marie Imbornoni, Daniel G. Prior E DITORIAL A SSISTANT Laura P. Chesterton A DMINISTRATIVE A SSISTANCE Kenneth C. Carpenter, Jennifer L. Crawford, Beth Jaffe, Craig LaPine, Margaret M. May, Laurie A. McCrohon, Cara Murray, Rebecca A. Parker, Heidi Stahl, Alisa Stepanian C ONTRIBUTING E DITOR , S YNONOMY Anne D. Steinhardt C ONTRIBUTING E DITOR , P RONUNCIATION Rima Elkin McKinzey C OORDINATING E DITOR , D ICTIONARIES Pamela Burton DeVinne C ONTRIBUTING E DITORS Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz, Elizabeth J.W. Baer, Ethan Balk, John K. Bollard, Carol J. Botteron, Guy J. Buckle, Karen Ann Cenci, Mary Lynn Czymbor, Ronald E. Doel, Leon A. Feldman, Nancy Fliesler, Ian A. Grable, David S. Greenes, Michael K. Hahn, Kristin Hanson, W.M. Havighurst, Paul G.K. Jodka, Elizabeth A. Jordan, Victoria M. McClellan, Ramona R. Michaelis, Sonja N. Nelson, Trudy Nelson, Barry John Perlman, Richard E. Plotkin, Lois J. Principe, David C. Roberts, Paul R. Schwankl, James E. Shea, Jeffrey E. Topal, Monica L. Zangwill C ITATIONS C LERK Shari Lynn Wheeler C OPYEDITING Frances Barna, Alice P. Carman, Maria A. Morelli P ROOFREADING Kathryn Blatt, Becky Cheston, Jennifer L. Dougherty, Judith L. Drummond, Valerie A. English, Bruce E. Frost II, Stella Gelboin, Rhonda L. Holmes, Katherine M. Isaacs, Eric C. Meyer, Maria Rodriguez Montenegro, Denis Moynihan, James F. Mulhern, Jill R. Norton, Lori Ohliger, Thelma Prince, Carole A. Ricciardi, Ann M. Rossi, A. Nancy Rourke PRODUCTION STAFF P RODUCTION AND M ANUFACTURING M ANAGER Christopher Leonesio P RODUCTION SUPERVISOR Patricia McTiernan SENIOR ART AND PRODUCTION COORDINATOR Margaret Anne Miles DATABASE KEYBOARDING Miriam E. Palmerola, Supervisor Lawrence Annucci, Edward Coleman, Cary Hawkins Doran, Kathleen R. Klingenberg, Sean Brosnahan Meehan, Donna Whiting MANUFACTURING SUPERVISOR Greg Mroczek SENIOR MANUFACTURING ASSISTANT Jill M. Lazer ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANCE Christina M. Granados, Lauren B. Hunnewell DATABASE DEVELOPMENT AND COMPOSITION SERVICES Auto-Graphics, Inc. Paul Cope, Vice President, Publishing Operations Robert Eiferd, Manager of Programming Kathi Pittman & Laura Stein, Project Managers STRUCTURED DATABASE DESIGN Joseph V. Gangemi, Consultant In Remembrance Jim A. Craig 1961–1991 Friend, Colleague, and Editor SPECIAL CONTRIBUTORS AND CONSULTANTS USAGE Geoffrey Nunberg, Ph.D. Stanford University DIALECT Sr. Mary Dominic Pitts, O.P, Ph.D. Aquinas Junior College INDO-EUROPEAN ROOTS APPENDIX Calvert Watkins, Ph.D. Harvard University LANGUAGE AND ETYMOLOGY CONSULTANTS Patrick S. Diehl, Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley Deborah W. Anderson, Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles Martin E. Huld, Ph.D., Department of English, University of California, Los Angeles Brian D. Joseph, Ph.D., Department of Linguistics, Ohio State University Reuven Merkin, Ph.D., Professor, Academy of the Hebrew Language, Jerusalem, Israel African Languages George N. Clements, Ph.D., Department of Modern Languages and Linguistics, Cornell University Austronesian Languages R. David Zorc, Ph.D., Senior Linguist, MRM Language Research Center Caribbean Languages Richard Allsopp, Ph.D., Caribbean Lexicography Project, University of the West Indies at Cave Hill, Barbados Celtic Languages Lionel S. Joseph, Ph.D., Harvard University Central and South American Languages Richard F. Townsend, Ph.D., Department of Africa, Oceania, and the Americas, Art Institute of Chicago Hipólito Rafael Chacón, M.A., Department of Art History, University of Chicago Dialect Craig M. Carver, Ph.D., Dictionary of Regional American English East Asian Languages Stephen A. Bladey Thomas Creamer, M.A. English Language and Linguistics G.W. Abernethy, Middle English Dictionary Sara E. Kimball, Ph.D., Department of English, University of Texas at Austin Henry Kucˇera, Ph.D., Department of Linguistics, Brown University Marilyn S. Miller, M.S.L., Middle English Dictionary Robert N. Mory, Ph.D., Middle English Dictionary Lee Pederson, Ph.D., Department of English, Emory University David W. Ruddy, M.A., University of Michigan David M. Yerkes, Ph.D., Professor of English, Department of English, Columbia University Greek and Latin Vincent P. McCarren, Ph.D., Middle English Dictionary Rex E. Wallace, Ph.D., Classics Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst Roger D. Woodard, Ph.D., Classics Department, University of Southern California North American Indian Languages Ives Goddard, Ph.D., Department of Anthropology, Smithsonian Institution Russian, Persian, and Ural-Altaic Languages Alexander Lehrman, Ph.D., Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, University of Delaware Science Etymology Sharon L. Marshall, Ph.D., M.D., Harvard and Tufts Universities Yiddish Marvin I. Herzog, Ph.D., Department of Linguistics, Columbia University SPECIAL CONSULTANTS Architecture Edward F. Ford, M.Arch., Associate Professor of Architecture, School of Architecture, University of Virginia Art H. Kristina Haugland, M.A., Assistant Curator, Costume and Textiles, Philadelphia Museum of Art Cinema P. Adams Sitney, Ph.D., Professor of Visual Arts in the Council of the Humanities, Princeton University Dance Mara Peets, M.A., Teaching Fellow, Expository Writing Program, New York University; Writer/Researcher and Assistant Director, Video Dictionary of Classical Ballet Economics, Business, and Finance David L. Scott, Ph.D., Professor of Accounting and Finance, Valdosta State College, Valdosta, Georgia History and Government John A. Garraty, Ph.D., Gouverneur Morris Professor Emeritus, Department of History, Columbia University Law Robert M. Landis, J.D., LL.D., Partner and formerly Chair, Dechert Price & Rhoads Meteorology David B. Johnson, Ph.D., National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado Military Science & Weapons Daniel P. Bolger, Ph.D., U.S. Army Infantry Officer Music Mary Davenport, Professor of Music, School for the Arts, Boston University Mythology William S. Bonds, Ph.D., Associate Professor and Chair, Department of Classical Languages, University of the South Philosophy Hilary Kornblith, Ph.D., Professor and Chair, Department of Philosophy, University of Vermont Religion William A. Graham, Ph.D., Professor of the History of Religion and Islamic Studies, Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, Harvard University Van A. Harvey, Ph.D., George Edwin Burnell Professor of Religious Studies, Department of Religious Studies, Stanford University Martin E. Marty, Ph.D., Fairfax M. Cone Distinguished Professor of the History of Modern Christianity, Divinity School, University of Chicago Richard P. McBrien, S.T.D., Crowley-O'Brien-Walter Professor of Theology, Department of Theology, University of Notre Dame Paul Mendes-Flohr, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Jewish Thought, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel Frank E. Reynolds, Ph.D., Professor of the History of Religions and Buddhist Studies, Divinity School and Department of South Asian Languages and Civilizations, University of Chicago Jack D. Van Horn, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Religion, College of William and Mary Science and Technology Donald C.S. Allison, Ph.D., Professor and Head, Department of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University William Ira Bennett, M.D., Editor, Harvard Health Letter, Harvard Medical School Sheila Ewing Browne, Ph.D., Professor of Chemistry and Chair, Department of Chemistry, Mount Holyoke College Neal D. Buffaloe, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus of Biology, University of Central Arkansas F.J. Collier, Curatorial Associate, Department of Invertebrate Paleobiology, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University Brooks B. Ellwood, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Geology, University of Texas at Arlington R.J. Emry, Ph.D., Research Paleontologist and Curator, Division of Vertebrate Paleontology, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution Frank Espey, M.D., Neurological Surgery (retired), Greenville, South Carolina William S. Haubrich, M.D., Head, Division of Gastroenterology, Scripps Clinical Research Foundation Nicholas Hotton III, Ph.D., Curator, Division of Vertebrate Paleontology, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution Lynn Margulis, Ph.D., Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts at Amherst J.W. Pierce, Ph.D., Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution C.E. Ray, Curator, Division of Vertebrate Paleontology, Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution Richard Evans Schultes, Ph.D., Jeffrey Professor of Biology and Director, Harvard Botanical Museum (Emeritus) James Trefil, Ph.D., Clarence J. Robinson Professor of Physics, George Mason University Sociology Mary Waters, Ph.D., John L. Loeb Associate Professor of the Social Sciences, Harvard University Sports Robert W. Creamer, formerly Senior Editor, Sports Illustrated Trademarks Ted J. Murphy, International and Information Services Manager, U.S. Trademark Association THE USAGE PANEL Geoffrey Nunberg, Ph.D. Chair Department of Linguistics, Stanford University Edwin Newman Chair Emeritus Journalist; lecturer; author Elie Abel Author and journalist; Professor Emeritus, Stanford University Shana Alexander Writer Cleveland Amory Humorist; humanitarian; President, The Fund for Animals Roger Angell Writer and Fiction Editor, New Yorker Natalie Angier Science journalist; recipient, Pulitzer Prize Isaac Asimov* Writer; Professor of Biochemistry, Boston University School of Medicine James Atlas Writer; Editor, New York Times Magazine Margaret Atwood Writer Kathryn H. Au Professor of Education, University of Hawaii Louis Auchincloss Writer Ralph Backlund* Senior Contributing Editor, Smithsonian; formerly Producer and Executive Producer for news and public affairs, CBS; formerly Associate Editor and Managing Editor, Horizon John Bainbridge* Staff writer, New Yorker; columnist, Gourmet Sheridan Baker Professor Emeritus of English, University of Michigan Letitia Baldrige Author; lecturer on manners Jacques Barzun Writer; literary consultant; educator John Baugh Professor of Linguistics, Stanford University Carolyn Wilkerson Bell Susan Duval Adams Professor of English, Randolph-Macon Woman's College Daniel Bell Henry Ford II Professor of Social Sciences Emeritus, Harvard University; Scholar in Residence, American Academy of Arts and Sciences Pierre Berton Canadian author and historian Alton Blakeslee Science Editor (retired), Associated Press Harold Bloom Writer; Sterling Professor of Humanities, Yale University; Berg Professor of English, New York University; MacArthur Fellow Roy Blount, Jr. Writer; Contributing Editor, Atlantic Kallia H. Bokser Housing Consultant Dwight Bolinger* Professor Emeritus of Romance Languages and Literatures, Harvard University; Visiting Professor Emeritus of Linguistics, Stanford University The Hon. Julian Bond Formerly Georgia state legislator; Professor, American University and University of Virginia; lecturer; host, public affairs television program The Hon. Daniel J. Boorstin Librarian of Congress Emeritus; recipient, Pulitzer Prize and National Book Award Medal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters Charles P. Boren Associate Editor (retired), Lewiston (Idaho) Morning Tribune Barbara Taylor Bradford Writer The Hon. William W. Bradley U.S. Senator from New Jersey; formerly professional basketball player Leo Braudy Bing Professor of English, University of Southern California Paul Brooks Writer; formerly Editor in Chief, Houghton Mifflin Company Heywood Hale Broun Writer; actor; television newsperson Rachel M. Brownstein Professor of English, Brooklyn College and the Graduate Center, City University of New York William F. Buckley, Jr. President, National Review Inc. Gabrielle Burton Writer Gerald Carson* Social historian; writer; advertising agency executive Claudia Cassidy Writer; formerly music and drama critic, Chicago Tribune; formerly critic at large, Chicago magazine Walter C. Clemens, Jr. Writer; Professor of Political Science, Boston University; Associate, Harvard University Center for Science and International Affairs Pat Conroy Novelist Claire Kehrwald Cook Formerly Editorial Director, Modern Language Association of America; author, Line by Line: How to Edit Your Own Writing Robin Cook, M.D. Physician; writer Alistair Cooke Journalist and broadcaster Roy H. Copperud* Professor Emeritus of Journalism, University of Southern California; columnist, Editor & Publisher; author of works on English usage; recipient, Humanities Award, Association of American Publishers Norman Cousins* Adjunct Professor, School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles; writer; formerly Editor, Saturday Review; formerly Chair, Pulitzer Prize jury in literature Malcolm Cowley* Writer; literary adviser, Viking Press, Inc.; formerly Associate Editor, New Republic Robert W. Creamer Writer; biographer; formerly Senior Editor, Sports Illustrated Gene D. Dahmen Attorney; past President, Boston Bar Association Marshall B. Davidson* Writer; Senior Editor, Horizon; formerly Editor of Publications, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Robertson Davies* Writer; founding Master, Massey College, University of Toronto; Professor of English and Drama Lois DeBakey Writer, lecturer, and consultant; Professor of Scientific Communication, Baylor College of Medicine Vine Deloria, Jr. Standing Rock Sioux Tribe Professor of Law, Religious Studies, Political Science, and History, University of Colorado Joan Didion Author Annie Dillard Writer; recipient, Pulitzer Prize William K. Durr Professor of Education Emeritus, Michigan State University; past President, International Reading Association Andrea Dworkin Writer Freeman J. Dyson Writer; Professor of Physics, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey Anne Edwards Biographer and novelist; past President, Authors Guild Gretel Ehrlich Writer; Guggenheim Fellow from Wyoming Ralph Ellison* Writer; educator Louise Erdrich Author Carolly Erickson Historian; writer Howard Fast Writer Frances FitzGerald Writer; contributor, New Yorker; recipient, Pulitzer Prize Elizabeth Frank Writer; Joseph E. Harry Professor of Modern Languages and Literature, Bard College; recipient, Pulitzer Prize Reuven Frank Author; columnist, New Leader magazine; formerly President, NBC News; formerly Executive Producer, Huntley-Brinkley Report John Kenneth Galbraith Economist; writer; formerly U.S. Ambassador to India; formerly Paul M. Warburg Professor of Economics Emeritus, Harvard University Sara Garnes Linguist; Director of First Year Composition and Associate Professor of English, Ohio State University Michael G. Gartner Columnist, USA Today; editor, Ames (Iowa) Daily Tribune; language columnist; formerly President, NBC News; past President, American Society of Newspaper Editors; past chairman, Pulitzer Prize Board Henry Louis Gates, Jr. Chair, Department of Afro-American Studies; W.E.B. Du Bois Professor of Humanities, Harvard University J. Edward Gates Lexicographer; editor; Professor Emeritus of English, Indiana State University A. Bartlett Giamatti* Sports executive; educator; Commissioner of Baseball; formerly President, National Baseball League; formerly President, Yale University Francine du Plessix Gray Writer Linda Gregerson Assistant Professor of English, University of Michigan Patricia Hampl Writer; Professor of English, University of Minnesota The Hon. Mark O. Hatfield U.S. Senator from Oregon The Hon. S.I. Hayakawa* Writer; educator; President Emeritus, San Francisco State University; formerly U.S. Senator from California Mark Helprin Writer; Contributing Editor, Wall Street Journal; Senior Fellow, Hudson Institute Oscar Hijuelos Author; recipient, Pulitzer Prize, Rome Prize Douglas R. Hofstadter College of Arts and Sciences Professor of Cognitive Science and Computer Science; Director, Center for Research on Concepts and Cognition, Indiana University, Bloomington; recipient, Pulitzer Prize Gloria Hom Educator and consultant; Chair, Economics Department, Mission College; member, California State University Board of Trustees; member, Board of Trustees, Dominican College of San Rafael Paul Horgan* Novelist, biographer, and historian; Professor Emeritus and Author in Residence, Wesleyan University; recipient, Pulitzer Prize The Hon. Shirley M. Hufstedler Senior Counsel, Morrison & Foerster; formerly U.S. Secretary of Education; formerly Judge, U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit John K. Hutchens* Retired member, Editorial Board, Book-of-the-Month Club; retired literary and drama reviewer, New York Times, New York Herald Tribune, and Boston Evening Transcript Molly Ivins Journalist; syndicated columnist; author Jennifer James Cultural anthropologist; writer Joyce Johnson Writer; recipient, National Book Critics Circle Award William F. Johnston* Associate Professor and Newspaper Internship Coordinator, School of Communications, University of Washington Erica Mann Jong Poet, novelist, and essayist The Hon. Barbara Jordan* Educator, attorney, and writer; Lyndon B. Johnson Centennial Professor in National Policy, Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs, University of Texas at Austin; formerly U.S. Representative from Texas June M. Jordan Poet; Professor of African American Studies and Women's Studies, University of California, Berkeley Alfred E. Kahn Robert Julius Thorne Professor of Economics Emeritus, Cornell University; formerly Economic Adviser to the President of the United States Roger Kahn Author; journalist Justin Kaplan Writer; recipient, Pulitzer Prize and National Book Award Stanley Kauffmann Film critic, New Republic Alfred Kazin Writer; Distinguished Professor of English Emeritus, the Graduate Center, City University of New York Trudy Kehret-Ward Educator; writer Garrison Keillor Author and host of A Prairie Home Companion Elizabeth T. Kennan Formerly President, Mount Holyoke College Walter Kerr Drama critic (retired), New York Times; formerly drama critic, New York Herald Tribune; past President, New York Drama Critics' Circle; recipient, Pulitzer Prize Jamaica Kincaid Author Florence King Writer; critic Maxine Hong Kingston Writer; recipient, National Book Award, National Book Critics Circle Award, Anisfield-Wolf Race Relations Award, and PEN USA West Award in Fiction Galway Kinnell Poet; Erich Maria Remarque Professor of Creative Writing, New York University; recipient, Pulitzer Prize, National Book Award The Hon. Jeremy K.B. Kinsman Canadian Ambassador to Russia The Hon. Jeane J. Kirkpatrick Diplomat; writer; educator; formerly U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations Maxine Kumin Writer; formerly Consultant in Poetry, Library of Congress; recipient, Pulitzer Prize Charles Kuralt Author; former CBS News correspondent J.J. Lamberts* Professor Emeritus of English, Arizona State University; author of works on English usage Milton I. Levine, M.D.* Professor of Clinical Pediatrics, New York Hospital--Cornell Medical Center; radio commentator, CBS; formerly syndicated columnist Flora Lewis Senior Columnist, New York Times Syndicate Robert E. Lewis Lexicographer; Editor in Chief, Middle English Dictionary; Professor of English, University of Michigan Sara Lawrence Lightfoot Professor of Education, Harvard University; writer; recipient, MacArthur Prize J. Anthony Lukas Author; journalist; recipient, Pulitzer Prize Russell Lynes* Writer; formerly Managing Editor, Harper's Claudine B. Malone Management consultant; formerly Associate Professor, Harvard Business School William Manchester Writer-in-Residence and Adjunct Professor of History Emeritus, Wesleyan University; Fellow, Pierson College, Yale University Robert Manning Writer; editor; formerly Editor in Chief, Atlantic Richard Curry Marius Novelist and biographer; Director of Expository Writing, Harvard University Suzanne R. Massie Writer; lecturer on Russian history and culture; Fellow, Harvard Russian Research Center Armistead Maupin Author Alice E. Mayhew Editorial Director, Trade Division, Simon & Schuster The Hon. Eugene McCarthy Writer, poet, and lecturer; formerly U.S. Senator from Minnesota David McCord Poet; essayist; Honorary Curator of the Poetry and Farnsworth Rooms, Harvard University Library Kenneth McCormick Senior Consulting Editor, Bantam Doubleday Dell; formerly Editor in Chief, Doubleday & Company, Inc. Mary McGrory Journalist; columnist, Washington Post and Universal Press Syndicate; recipient, Pulitzer Prize Leonard Michaels Professor of English, University of California, Berkeley James A. Michener Writer; recipient, Pulitzer Prize and Presidential Medal of Freedom Hassan Minor, Jr. Vice President for Government Affairs, Howard University Richard Scott Mitchell* Mineralogist; educator; writer; Professor of Environmental Science, University of Virginia; Executive Editor, Rocks and Minerals Jessica Mitford Writer Lance Morrow Essayist and Senior Writer, Time; recipient, National Magazine Award The Hon. Daniel Patrick Moynihan U.S. Senator from New York; formerly Professor of Political Science, Harvard University Cullen Murphy Managing Editor, Atlantic The Hon. Maurine Neuberger Formerly U.S. Senator from Oregon; formerly Oregon state legislator Ambassador Thomas M.T. Niles U.S. Ambassador to Greece; formerly Assistant Secretary of State for European and Canadian Affairs, U.S. Representative to the European Community, and U.S. Ambassador to Canada David Ogilvy, C.B.E. Advertising copywriter; Officer of the Order of Arts and Letters (France); past Chair, United Negro College Fund Cynthia Ozick Novelist; essayist; member, American Academy of Arts and Letters Robert S. Pirie Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Rothschild Inc. Alvin F. Poussaint, M.D. Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School Ellen F. Prince Professor of Linguistics, University of Pennsylvania Jane Bryant Quinn Journalist; syndicated financial columnist, Newsweek and Good Housekeeping Tony Randall Actor William James Raspberry Syndicated urban affairs columnist; Knight Professor for the Practice of Journalism, Duke University; recipient, Pulitzer Prize Edward W. Rosenheim Editor; writer; Professor of English Emeritus, University of Chicago Judith Rossner Novelist Leo Rosten Writer; social scientist; editor Berton Roueché* Writer Vermont Royster Writer; educator; Editor Emeritus, Wall Street Journal; recipient, Pulitzer Prize Carl Sagan David Duncan Professor of Astronomy and Space Sciences and Director, Laboratory for Planetary Studies, Cornell University; scientist; author; recipient, Pulitzer Prize Robert Saudek Television producer; former Division Chief, Library of Congress; Lecturer on Visual Studies, Harvard University; founding President, Museum of Broadcasting Antonin Scalia Supreme Court Justice Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. Writer; historian; educator; formerly Special Assistant to the President of the United States; recipient, Pulitzer Prize Glenn T. Seaborg University Professor of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley; formerly Chair, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission; recipient, Nobel Prize Art Seidenbaum* Journalist; Editor, Opinion Section, Los Angeles Times Harvey Shapiro Poet; Senior editor, New York Times Magazine Elaine Showalter Professor of English, Princeton University John Simon Drama critic, New York; film critic, National Review Carlota S. Smith Centennial Professor of Linguistics; In Charge, Cognitive Science Program, University of Texas Jack Smith* Columnist, Los Angeles Times Susan Sontag Writer Theodore C. Sorensen Attorney; writer; formerly Special Counsel to the President of the United States Susan Stamberg Special Correspondent, National Public Radio Wallace Stegner* Writer; founder and formerly Director, Stanford University Writing Program; recipient, Pulitzer Prize and National Book Award Shane Templeton Foundation Professor of Curriculum and Instruction, University of Nevada, Reno Paul Theroux Novelist; travel writer Elizabeth Marshall Thomas Writer Nina Totenberg Legal Affairs Correspondent, National Public Radio and ABC’s “Nightline”; panelist, “Inside Washington” Elizabeth C. Traugott Professor of Linguistics and English, Stanford University Calvin Trillin Staff writer, New Yorker; columnist, Time Anne Tyler Novelist; recipient, Pulitzer Prize The Hon. Stewart L. Udall Writer; Chairman of the Board, The Archaeological Conservancy, Santa Fe, New Mexico; formerly U.S. Secretary of the Interior and U.S. Representative from Arizona Helen H. Vendler A. Kingsley Porter University Professor of English, Harvard University Douglas Turner Ward Actor; playwright; recipient, Vernon Rice Award and Obie Award Calvert Watkins Victor S. Thomas Professor of Linguistics and the Classics, Harvard University; past President, Linguistic Society of America Fay Weldon Writer Eudora Welty Writer Jacqueline Grennan Wexler Writer; formerly President, Hunter College, City University of New York Tom Wicker Author; journalist; Editor, New York Times Alden S. Wood Lecturer on Editorial Procedures, Simmons College; national columnist on language and English usage Richard A. Young Writer, editor, lecturer, and engineer; Publisher, Pollution Engineering; Executive Director, National Registry of Environmental Professionals William Zinsser Writer, editor, and teacher; author of On Writing Well and Writing to Learn * We regret that these members of the Usage Panel have died
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language
Author: anne H. Soukhanov
This definitive monograph focuses on the population, biology, and behavioral ecology of feral pigeons, a familiar but seldom studied bird. Includes a thorough listing of primary references of US and European scholarly literature.
Author: Richard F. Johnston,Marián Janiga
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
A two-volume set which traces the history of food and nutrition from the beginning of human life on earth through the present.
Author: Kenneth F. Kiple,Kriemhild Coneè Ornelas
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
An Illustrated A-Z of Terms and Styles
Publisher: Michael Joseph
Author: Ireland. Heritage Service,Jane Fenlon,Ireland. Dept. of the Environment and Local Government,Hugh Maguire
Author: Ancient Monuments Society
Category: Historic buildings
Author: Nosson Scherman,Meir Zlotowitz,Mesorah Heritage Foundation
In Kitchens, Smokehouses, and Privies, Michael Olmert takes us into the eighteenth-century backyards of colonial America. He explores the many small outbuildings that can still be found at obscure rural farmsteads throughout the Tidewater and greater mid-Atlantic, in towns like Williamsburg and Annapolis, and at elite plantations such as Mount Vernon and Monticello. These structures were designed to support the performance of a single task: cooking food; washing clothes; smoking meat; storing last winter's ice; or keeping milk, cheese, and cream fresh. Privies and small offices are also addressed, as is the dovecote, in which doves were raised for their eggs, squab meat, feathers, and fertilizer. Often, these little buildings were clustered in such a way as to resemble a small village, knit together by similar design details and building materials: they were all constructed in weatherboards or in brick, for instance, or were arranged in a single file or positioned at the four corners of the yard. In this appealing book, featuring nearly a hundred crisp black-and-white photographs, Olmert explains how these well-made buildings actually functioned. He is riveted by the history of outbuildings: their architecture, patterns of use, folklore, and even their literary presence. In two appendixes he also considers octagonal and hexagonal structures, which had special significance, both doctrinal and cultural, in early America. Archaeologists and historians still have many questions about the design and function of outbuildings-questions that are often difficult to answer because of the ephemeral nature of these structures; they were not documented-any more than laundry rooms and storage units inspire rhapsodies today. Olmert's book, deeply grounded in scholarship, eminently readable, and profusely illustrated, takes these buildings seriously and gives them the attention they deserve.
Outbuildings and the Architecture of Daily Life in the Eighteenth-century Mid-Atlantic
Author: Michael Olmert
Betr. u.a. Strassentauben in Basel und die "Basler Taubenaktion" zur Regulierung der Population.
vom heiligen Vogel der Liebesgöttin zur Strassentaube
Author: Daniel Haag-Wackernagel
Category: Natural history
Author: Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson
Category: Norwegian fiction